Under ConstructionEvolution

Under ConstructionEvolution:
Indigenous Identity in the Bolivia of Evo Morales
Thesis submitted to Karlshochschule International University for the Degree of
Bachelor of Arts in International Relations
Svenja Osmers
Prof. Dr. Michael Zerr
Statutory Declaration
I herewith declare that I have authored the present thesis independently making use only of the specified literature. Sentences or parts of sentences quoted literally are marked as quotations; identification of other references with regard to the statement and scope of the work is quoted. The thesis in this form or in any other form has not been submitted to an examination body and has not been published.

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Abstract
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-4” h z u List of abbreviationsiList of tables and figuresii1Introduction11.1Historic contextualisation of indigeneity in Bolivia11.2Personal motivation21.3Practical relevance31.4Scientific relevance31.5Aim and structure of the work42Theoretical framework52.1Social constructionism52.2Indigeneity and identity62.2.1Identity in general72.2.2Identity construction and identity in constructivism72.2.3Indigenous identity82.3Collective Identity in Discourse Analysis102.4Connecting theories102.5Research Question113Methodology113.1Research Design113.2Discourse Analysis113.3Data collection154Data Analysis154.1Textual analysis154.1.1Transitivity154.1.1.1Speech at Tiahuanacu 2006174.1.1.2Speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009204.1.1.3Speech after electoral victory 2014234.1.2Modality264.1.2.1Speech at Tiahuanacu 2006264.1.2.2Speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009264.1.2.3Speech after electoral victory 2014264.2Discursive analysis264.2.1Speech at Tiahuanacu 2006264.2.2Speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009264.2.3Speech after electoral victory 2014264.3Social analysis264.3.1Speech at Tiahuanacu 2006264.3.2Speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009264.3.3Speech after electoral victory 2014265Conclusion266Limitations267Critical reflection278Future research279Publication bibliography2810Appendix30 TOC o “1-3” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287609” List of abbreviations PAGEREF _Toc522287609 h i HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287610” List of figures and tables PAGEREF _Toc522287610 h ii HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287611” 1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc522287611 h 1 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287612” 1.1Historic contextualisation of indigeneity in Bolivia PAGEREF _Toc522287612 h 1 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287616” 1.2Personal motivation PAGEREF _Toc522287616 h 2 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287617” 1.3Practical relevance PAGEREF _Toc522287617 h 3 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287618” 1.4Scientific relevance PAGEREF _Toc522287618 h 4 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287621” 1.5Aim and structure of the work PAGEREF _Toc522287621 h 4 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287622” 2Theoretical framework PAGEREF _Toc522287622 h 5 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287626” 2.1Social constructionism PAGEREF _Toc522287626 h 5 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287627” 2.2Indigeneity and identity PAGEREF _Toc522287627 h 7 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287628” 2.2.1Identity in general PAGEREF _Toc522287628 h 7 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287629” 2.2.2Identity construction and identity in constructivism PAGEREF _Toc522287629 h 7 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287630” 2.2.3Indigenous identity PAGEREF _Toc522287630 h 9 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287639” 2.3Collective Identity in Discourse Analysis PAGEREF _Toc522287639 h 10 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287640” 2.4Connecting theories PAGEREF _Toc522287640 h 11 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287641” 2.5Research Question PAGEREF _Toc522287641 h 11 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287642” 3Methodology PAGEREF _Toc522287642 h 11 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287643” 3.1Research Design PAGEREF _Toc522287643 h 11 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287644” 3.2Discourse Analysis PAGEREF _Toc522287644 h 11 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287645” 3.3Data collection PAGEREF _Toc522287645 h 15 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287650” 4Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc522287650 h 16 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287651” 4.1Textual analysis – Transitivity PAGEREF _Toc522287651 h 16 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287652” 4.1.1Speech at Tiahuanacu 2006 PAGEREF _Toc522287652 h 17 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287653” 4.1.2Speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009 PAGEREF _Toc522287653 h 20 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287654” 4.1.3Speech after electoral victory 2014 PAGEREF _Toc522287654 h 23 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287655” 4.1.4Summary PAGEREF _Toc522287655 h 25 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287660” 4.2Discursive analysis PAGEREF _Toc522287660 h 26 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287662” 4.2.1Speech at Tiahuanacu 2006 PAGEREF _Toc522287662 h 26 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287663” 4.2.2Speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009 PAGEREF _Toc522287663 h 26 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287664” 4.2.3Speech after electoral victory 2014 PAGEREF _Toc522287664 h 26 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287665” 4.3Social analysis PAGEREF _Toc522287665 h 26 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287666” 4.3.1Speech at Tiahuanacu 2006 PAGEREF _Toc522287666 h 26 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287667” 4.3.2Speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009 PAGEREF _Toc522287667 h 26 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287668” 4.3.3Speech after electoral victory 2014 PAGEREF _Toc522287668 h 26 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287669” 5Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc522287669 h 26 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287670” 6Limitations PAGEREF _Toc522287670 h 27 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287671” 7Critical reflection PAGEREF _Toc522287671 h 27 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287672” 8Future research PAGEREF _Toc522287672 h 27 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287673” 9Publication bibliography PAGEREF _Toc522287673 h 28 HYPERLINK l “_Toc522287674” 10Appendix PAGEREF _Toc522287674 h 30List of abbreviationsAbbreviation SpanishEnglish
COB Central Obrera Boliviana Bolivian Workers’ Centre
CPE Constitución Política del Estado State Constitution
CSUTCB Confederación Sindical Única de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia Unified Syndical Confederation of Rural Workers of Bolivia
MASMovimiento al SocialismoMovement towards Socialism
List of figures and tablesName Page
Figure 1 Critical Discourse Analysis by Fairclough and Halliday Table 1 Transitivity analysis of all three speeches Table 2 Transitivity analysis of the speech at Tiahuanacu 2006 Table 3 Transitivity analysis of the speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009 Table 4 Transitivity analysis of the electoral victory speech 2014
IntroductionHistoric contextualisation of indigeneity in BoliviaIn 1825 independence did not equal liberation for the indigenous population of Bolivia. 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ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER b2c6353b-de94-4478-aaf1-29f9ea658ec6 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(ibidGarcía Linera 2014, p. 209) By comparison, the struggle for autonomy today is characterized by “overthrowing the exploitative, unjust, and discriminatory order that persisted beyond independence from Spain”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER bd170266-0705-4f67-ba4a-aa8ca9be3d12 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNy4wLjA8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPmJkMTcwMjY2LTA3MDUtNGY2Ny1iYTRhLWFhOGNhOWJlM2QxMjwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPjc1YTg2MDkzLTMzMWItNGI5Yy04YmJiLTI4OWZjNTAwNjYxYTwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD42NGRlOWMxMS1mZDNlLTQ3NTktOTIxYy0xNjM4Mjk4YzgxMmU8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjE3Nzwvbj4NCiAgPGluPnRydWU8L2luPg0KICA8b3M+MTc3PC9vcz4NCiAgPHBzPjE3NzwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPG9zPjE3Nzwvb3M+XV0+PC9QYWdlUmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICA8U3RhcnRQYWdlPjE3NzwvU3RhcnRQYWdlPg0KICAgICAgPE51bWVyYWxTeXN0ZW0+QXJhYmljPC9OdW1lcmFsU3lzdGVtPg0KICAgICAgPE51bWJlcmluZ1R5cGU+UGFnZTwvTnVtYmVyaW5nVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgIDxRdW90YXRpb25UeXBlPkluZGlyZWN0UXVvdGF0aW9uPC9RdW90YXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZUlkPjc5ZWY3N2FmLWVlMDgtNDA1MC1iZTEyLTdiOTRjNTMyZjEyOTwvUmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+DQogICAgICA8UmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydD4wPC9TdGFydD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExlbmd0aD4yMTwvTGVuZ3RoPg0KICAgICAgPC9SYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+Sm91cm5hbEFydGljbGU8L1JlZmVyZW5jZVR5cGVJZD4NCiAgICAgICAgPEF1dGhvcnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFBlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxGaXJzdE5hbWU+Um9zYWxlZW48L0ZpcnN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMYXN0TmFtZT5Ib3dhcmQ8L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPFNleD5GZW1hbGU8L1NleD4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9BdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICA8SWQ+NzllZjc3YWYtZWUwOC00MDUwLWJlMTItN2I5NGM1MzJmMTI5PC9JZD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5odHRwOi8vd3d3LmpzdG9yLm9yZy9zdGFibGUvMjU3MDA1MjM8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5Ib3dhcmQgMjAxMCAtIExhbmd1YWdlLCBTaWducy5wZGY8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxOdW1iZXI+MzwvTnVtYmVyPg0KICAgICAgICA8UGFnZVJhbmdlPjwhW0NEQVRBWzxzcD4NCiAgPG4+MTc2PC9uPg0KICA8aW4+dHJ1ZTwvaW4+DQogIDxvcz4xNzY8L29zPg0KICA8cHM+MTc2PC9wcz4NCjwvc3A+DQo8ZXA+DQogIDxuPjE5NDwvbj4NCiAgPGluPnRydWU8L2luPg0KICA8b3M+MTk0PC9vcz4NCiAgPHBzPjE5NDwvcHM+DQo8L2VwPg0KPG9zPjE3Ni0xOTQ8L29zPl1dPjwvUGFnZVJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgICA8RW5kUGFnZT4xOTQ8L0VuZFBhZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydFBhZ2U+MTc2PC9TdGFydFBhZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxQZXJpb2RpY2FsPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxOYW1lPkxhdGluIEFtZXJpY2FuIFBlcnNwZWN0aXZlczwvTmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJpb2RpY2FsPg0KICAgICAgICA8UHVibGlzaGVycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UHVibGlzaGVyPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPE5hbWU+U2FnZSBQdWJsaWNhdGlvbnMsIEluYzwvTmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1B1Ymxpc2hlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9QdWJsaXNoZXJzPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+NzwvU2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+DQogICAgICAgIDxTaG9ydFRpdGxlPkhvd2FyZCAyMDEwIOKAkyBMYW5ndWFnZSwgU2lnbnM8L1Nob3J0VGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxTb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj5SSVM8L1NvdXJjZU9mQmlibGlvZ3JhcGhpY0luZm9ybWF0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICA8U3VidGl0bGU+VGhlIERpc2N1cnNpdmUgU3RydWdnbGUgb3ZlciBEZWNvbG9uaXphdGlvbiBpbiB0aGUgQm9saXZpYSBvZiBFdm8gTW9yYWxlczwvU3VidGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxUaXRsZT5MYW5ndWFnZSwgU2lnbnMsIGFuZCB0aGUgUGVyZm9ybWFuY2Ugb2YgUG93ZXI8L1RpdGxlPg0KICAgICAgICA8Vm9sdW1lPjM3PC9Wb2x1bWU+DQogICAgICAgIDxZZWFyPjIwMTA8L1llYXI+DQogICAgICA8L1JlZmVyZW5jZT4NCiAgICA8L0VudHJ5Pg0KICA8L0VudHJpZXM+DQogIDxUZXh0PihIb3dhcmQgMjAxMCwgcC7CoDE3Nyk8L1RleHQ+DQogIDxUZXh0VW5pdHM+DQogICAgPFRleHRVbml0Pg0KICAgICAgPEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250TmFtZSAvPg0KICAgICAgPEZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD4NCiAgICAgICAgPE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDwvRm9udFN0eWxlPg0KICAgICAgPEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPg0KICAgICAgPFRleHQ+KEhvd2FyZCAyMDEwLCBwLsKgMTc3KTwvVGV4dD4NCiAgICA8L1RleHRVbml0Pg0KICA8L1RleHRVbml0cz4NCjwvUGxhY2Vob2xkZXI+(Howard 2010, p. 177) In the 1930s miners and factory workers were establishing their own economic and political representation in the form of unions or sindicatos. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 525a67b0-1e33-4e9b-b3cd-62fa61808853 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(Postero 2010, p. 20) While industrial workers organized themselves in unions, and participated in the political arena with the Central Obrero Boliviano (Bolivian Workers’ Central- COB) – most notably during the revolution of 1952 and the first few years afterwards as part of the government – the mostly indigenous peasant workers organized in their own union called Confederación Sindical Única de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia (United Confederation of Peasant Workers of Bolivia – CSUTCB). ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 35520a1e-f1bb-4498-8042-f3d6d8a1e606 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(Postero 2010, p. 20) Indigenous movements first saw considerable development within Bolivia in the late 1960s as the Katarista movement started to fight for indigenous rights. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER f75e3c6c-6b64-4e80-8f02-78108968dd05 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(Postero 2010, pp. 20–21) Miners and factory workers established their own political representation in the form of unions or sindicatos. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 525a67b0-1e33-4e9b-b3cd-62fa61808853 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(Postero 2010, p. 20) Privatization, liberation of trade and falling tin prices weakened the stance of the unions in the 80s which had grown strong from the 1960s onwards. This weakening forced workers to relocate, thus leaving their original union, possibly even their original profession. Unions nonetheless continued to be of importance when it came to organizing. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 20d3de87-9286-4946-9b20-c736a0e5e2e3 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(Postero 2010, p. 21)
When Morales moved to the Chapare region in 1980, following a drought in his home region, he became a coca grower, as this was a common occupation in the area. Just one year later he was elected leader of the coca growers. BBC Monitoring Quelle Forced relocation fed a new combined form of social organisation. Former workers who moved to the Chapare region as coca growers combined their political activities with the remnants of protest techniques from the unions. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 92f456c6-0d9b-4590-b68e-c901afb71893 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(Postero 2010, pp. 21–22) Unions started to get politized and became important outlets for political activity. At the same time, international support for the coca leaf as an indigenous cultural good helped shape the identity of unions as representations of indigenous values and requests. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 63a3d9b2-a1b3-474f-8484-dec1c2c43870 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(Postero 2010, p. 22)
Sanchez de Lozada’s government intensified reform in the 1990s, including many that specifically benefitted indigenous peoples. This “state-led multiculturalism” impacted the emerging indigenous discourse and turned it towards “indigenous citizenship”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 075657c5-393e-4ea4-86cb-4798212e38d8 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(Postero 2010, p. 22) The neoliberal approach did not change the disadvantages that indigenous people faced, it merely recognized them as such. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 7dfc4f57-acea-400b-b17f-5e450b61779b 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Postero (2007) suggests that the government wanted them to merely be “docile neoliberal subjects”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 447c60e6-2faf-41eb-b4de-b9af324676d7 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNy4wLjA8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPjQ0N2M2MGU2LTJmYWYtNDFlYi1iNGRlLWI5YWYzMjQ2NzZkNzwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPmRlMWQwNzU5LTRkYmQtNGIwYi05OTM1LTMzMTdmMjdjYTdjZTwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD5kMzdlZDY1YS1mMmFhLTQ3M2ItYmUzNi1kOGM3NGNkODMzNTY8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjIyPC9uPg0KICA8aW4+dHJ1ZTwvaW4+DQogIDxvcz4yMjwvb3M+DQogIDxwcz4yMjwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPG9zPjIyPC9vcz5dXT48L1BhZ2VSYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxTdGFydFBhZ2U+MjI8L1N0YXJ0UGFnZT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1lcmFsU3lzdGVtPkFyYWJpYzwvTnVtZXJhbFN5c3RlbT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1iZXJpbmdUeXBlPlBhZ2U8L051bWJlcmluZ1R5cGU+DQogICAgICA8UXVvdGF0aW9uVHlwZT5JbmRpcmVjdFF1b3RhdGlvbjwvUXVvdGF0aW9uVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VJZD5mNzcxMWNkOC01ZmE3LTQ4Y2UtYWI3Ny1mNTMzMjZjN2U4NWU8L1JlZmVyZW5jZUlkPg0KICAgICAgPFJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgICA8U3RhcnQ+MDwvU3RhcnQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxMZW5ndGg+MjE8L0xlbmd0aD4NCiAgICAgIDwvUmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICA8UmVmZXJlbmNlPg0KICAgICAgICA8UmVmZXJlbmNlVHlwZUlkPkpvdXJuYWxBcnRpY2xlPC9SZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxBdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8Rmlyc3ROYW1lPk5hbmN5PC9GaXJzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+UG9zdGVybzwvTGFzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8U2V4PkZlbWFsZTwvU2V4Pg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L0F1dGhvcnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxJZD5mNzcxMWNkOC01ZmE3LTQ4Y2UtYWI3Ny1mNTMzMjZjN2U4NWU8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxBZGRyZXNzPmh0dHA6Ly93d3cuanN0b3Iub3JnL3N0YWJsZS8yNTcwMDUxNDwvQWRkcmVzcz4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+RWxlY3Ryb25pY0FkZHJlc3M8L0xvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L0xvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxBZGRyZXNzPlBvc3Rlcm8gMjAxMCAtIE1vcmFsZXMncyBNQVMgR292ZXJubWVudC5wZGY8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxOdW1iZXI+MzwvTnVtYmVyPg0KICAgICAgICA8UGFnZVJhbmdlPjwhW0NEQVRBWzxzcD4NCiAgPG4+MTg8L24+DQogIDxpbj50cnVlPC9pbj4NCiAgPG9zPjE4PC9vcz4NCiAgPHBzPjE4PC9wcz4NCjwvc3A+DQo8ZXA+DQogIDxuPjM0PC9uPg0KICA8aW4+dHJ1ZTwvaW4+DQogIDxvcz4zNDwvb3M+DQogIDxwcz4zNDwvcHM+DQo8L2VwPg0KPG9zPjE4LTM0PC9vcz5dXT48L1BhZ2VSYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPEVuZFBhZ2U+MzQ8L0VuZFBhZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydFBhZ2U+MTg8L1N0YXJ0UGFnZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFBlcmlvZGljYWw+DQogICAgICAgICAgPE5hbWU+TGF0aW4gQW1lcmljYW4gUGVyc3BlY3RpdmVzPC9OYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICA8L1BlcmlvZGljYWw+DQogICAgICAgIDxQdWJsaXNoZXJzPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQdWJsaXNoZXI+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TmFtZT5TYWdlIFB1YmxpY2F0aW9ucywgSW5jPC9OYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUHVibGlzaGVyPg0KICAgICAgICA8L1B1Ymxpc2hlcnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxTZXF1ZW5jZU51bWJlcj41PC9TZXF1ZW5jZU51bWJlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNob3J0VGl0bGU+UG9zdGVybyAyMDEwIOKAkyBNb3JhbGVzJ3MgTUFTIEdvdmVybm1lbnQ8L1Nob3J0VGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxTb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj5SSVM8L1NvdXJjZU9mQmlibGlvZ3JhcGhpY0luZm9ybWF0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICA8U3VidGl0bGU+QnVpbGRpbmcgSW5kaWdlbm91cyBQb3B1bGFyIEhlZ2Vtb255IGluIEJvbGl2aWE8L1N1YnRpdGxlPg0KICAgICAgICA8VGl0bGU+TW9yYWxlcydzIE1BUyBHb3Zlcm5tZW50PC9UaXRsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFZvbHVtZT4zNzwvVm9sdW1lPg0KICAgICAgICA8WWVhcj4yMDEwPC9ZZWFyPg0KICAgICAgPC9SZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgPC9FbnRyeT4NCiAgPC9FbnRyaWVzPg0KICA8VGV4dD4oUG9zdGVybyAyMDEwLCBwLsKgMjIpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICA8VGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KICAgIDxUZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgICAgIDxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+DQogICAgICAgIDxOYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT4NCiAgICAgIDxUZXh0PihQb3N0ZXJvIDIwMTAsIHAuwqAyMik8L1RleHQ+DQogICAgPC9UZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgPC9UZXh0VW5pdHM+DQo8L1BsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg==(Postero 2010, p. 22)
As a consequence of failing support from the government, the Movimiento Al Socialismo (MAS – Movement Towards Socialism) emerged in the mid-1990s at a congress of the campesino and cocalero union (Asamblea por la Soberanía de los Pueblos (Assembly for the Sovereignty of the People)). Presenting their own indigenous candidates, the unions started their party-political process with Evo Morales as the cocalero leader. It is important to note, that as Postero (2010) reminds the readers, the MAS is not a “traditional political party, but the political instrument of the social movements at its base”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 8b899f6e-e4e5-420b-8a44-751adad5c41f 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(p. 23) Organizing within rural areas was commonly done as a form of religious, peasant or revolutionary movements. These promoted other identities over the indigenous one. The MAS of Evo Morales could be considered a peasant movement (having originated from the confederation of Coca producers in the Chapare area of Cochabamba), and as Howard (2010) noted, it never portrayed itself as an indigenous movement, though all the while still referencing the indigenous roots of Morales and including indigenous ideas in its party program. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER c31e1056-657a-4334-bce4-67bb3584705f 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(Yashar 1998) MAS used indigenous language to win the elections but lost its original bearing in the process? Postero (2010) suggests that while Morales’s position became less revolutionary after the election, but that the legitimacy of the MAS was also the only reason why Bolivia survived the collapse of the Mesa government in 2005. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 45e53b17-6471-497d-85de-85c6033edb7f 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2010, p. 24) Kohl and Bresnahan (2010) content that had Morales party not chosen to be democratically elected after the failure of the Mesa government, it were “unlikely that his government would have the same international recognition that it enjoys today” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER cd828987-e2d0-4180-9de2-85efd79cad73 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNy4wLjA8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPmNkODI4OTg3LWUyZDAtNDE4MC05ZGUyLTg1ZWZkNzljYWQ3MzwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPmIyNmNlOTdlLTBiNDItNDYxNy1hY2I2LWI2NGI5YzljMzJhMjwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD5lMWE2MzRhYy00ZDBmLTRjNGEtYjNiMy03ODlhOWVkOGE2NzQ8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjEwPC9uPg0KICA8aW4+dHJ1ZTwvaW4+DQogIDxvcz4xMDwvb3M+DQogIDxwcz4xMDwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPG9zPjEwPC9vcz5dXT48L1BhZ2VSYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxTdGFydFBhZ2U+MTA8L1N0YXJ0UGFnZT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1lcmFsU3lzdGVtPkFyYWJpYzwvTnVtZXJhbFN5c3RlbT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1iZXJpbmdUeXBlPlBhZ2U8L051bWJlcmluZ1R5cGU+DQogICAgICA8UXVvdGF0aW9uVHlwZT5EaXJlY3RRdW90YXRpb248L1F1b3RhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICA8UmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+NmJjNThkNDktM2QwMS00ZWMyLWIxZjYtN2VhYjUwNWJmZmQyPC9SZWZlcmVuY2VJZD4NCiAgICAgIDxSYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFN0YXJ0PjA8L1N0YXJ0Pg0KICAgICAgICA8TGVuZ3RoPjMyPC9MZW5ndGg+DQogICAgICA8L1JhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZVR5cGVJZD5Kb3VybmFsQXJ0aWNsZTwvUmVmZXJlbmNlVHlwZUlkPg0KICAgICAgICA8QXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEZpcnN0TmFtZT5CZW5qYW1pbjwvRmlyc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExhc3ROYW1lPktvaGw8L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPFNleD5NYWxlPC9TZXg+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFBlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxGaXJzdE5hbWU+Um9zYWxpbmQ8L0ZpcnN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMYXN0TmFtZT5CcmVzbmFoYW48L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPFNleD5GZW1hbGU8L1NleD4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9BdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICA8SWQ+NmJjNThkNDktM2QwMS00ZWMyLWIxZjYtN2VhYjUwNWJmZmQyPC9JZD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5odHRwOi8vd3d3LmpzdG9yLm9yZy9zdGFibGUvMjU3MDA1MTM8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5Lb2hsLCBCcmVzbmFoYW4gMjAxMCAtIEludHJvZHVjdGlvbi5wZGY8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxOdW1iZXI+MzwvTnVtYmVyPg0KICAgICAgICA8UGFnZVJhbmdlPjwhW0NEQVRBWzxzcD4NCiAgPG4+NTwvbj4NCiAgPGluPnRydWU8L2luPg0KICA8b3M+NTwvb3M+DQogIDxwcz41PC9wcz4NCjwvc3A+DQo8ZXA+DQogIDxuPjE3PC9uPg0KICA8aW4+dHJ1ZTwvaW4+DQogIDxvcz4xNzwvb3M+DQogIDxwcz4xNzwvcHM+DQo8L2VwPg0KPG9zPjUtMTc8L29zPl1dPjwvUGFnZVJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgICA8RW5kUGFnZT4xNzwvRW5kUGFnZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFN0YXJ0UGFnZT41PC9TdGFydFBhZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxQZXJpb2RpY2FsPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxOYW1lPkxhdGluIEFtZXJpY2FuIFBlcnNwZWN0aXZlczwvTmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJpb2RpY2FsPg0KICAgICAgICA8UHVibGlzaGVycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UHVibGlzaGVyPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPE5hbWU+U2FnZSBQdWJsaWNhdGlvbnMsIEluYzwvTmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1B1Ymxpc2hlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9QdWJsaXNoZXJzPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+NDwvU2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+DQogICAgICAgIDxTaG9ydFRpdGxlPktvaGwsIEJyZXNuYWhhbiAyMDEwIOKAkyBJbnRyb2R1Y3Rpb248L1Nob3J0VGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxTb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj5SSVM8L1NvdXJjZU9mQmlibGlvZ3JhcGhpY0luZm9ybWF0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICA8U3VidGl0bGU+Qm9saXZpYSB1bmRlciBNb3JhbGVzOiBDb25zb2xpZGF0aW5nIFBvd2VyLCBJbml0aWF0aW5nIERlY29sb25pemF0aW9uPC9TdWJ0aXRsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFRpdGxlPkludHJvZHVjdGlvbjwvVGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxWb2x1bWU+Mzc8L1ZvbHVtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj4NCiAgICAgIDwvUmVmZXJlbmNlPg0KICAgIDwvRW50cnk+DQogIDwvRW50cmllcz4NCiAgPFRleHQ+KEtvaGwgYW5kIEJyZXNuYWhhbiAyMDEwLCBwLsKgMTApPC9UZXh0Pg0KICA8VGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KICAgIDxUZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgICAgIDxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+DQogICAgICAgIDxOYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT4NCiAgICAgIDxUZXh0PihLb2hsIGFuZCBCcmVzbmFoYW4gMjAxMCwgcC7CoDEwKTwvVGV4dD4NCiAgICA8L1RleHRVbml0Pg0KICA8L1RleHRVbml0cz4NCjwvUGxhY2Vob2xkZXI+(Kohl and Bresnahan 2010, p. 10) For indigenous rights, Morales’s election marks the “end of a particular Andean form of apartheid”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 87cc2354-a5e5-462a-91d5-7e602e923b39 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(Kohl 2010, p. 107)
“In the poorest and most remote areas of the country indigenous people are inspired by Morales’s rise from humble beginnings on the highland plateau, the altiplano.” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER db221ff4-d589-4d8e-badd-e3ce82a11458 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(Kohl 2010)”Morales’s strong pro-indigenous rhetoric has clearly alienated many urban Bolivians who lack a strong ethnic identification.” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 7c988f39-0cdc-492b-89bf-e92831fa6d75 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(Kohl 2010) Morales’s radical discourse, while prominent with his working-class base, alienates the middle-class portion of his 2005 supporters. This is fed by what would now be called fake news distributed by the media. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 63b0fa72-4115-4319-ac02-4ef71af666c1 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(Kohl 2010)Indigenous movements question the nation state. Morales’s movement became the nation state – is there a principal contradiction in the mission of the MAS and theory? ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER cc50caaf-2983-498c-b045-29b2b77ebc5c 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(Kohl and Bresnahan 2010, p. 10)Personal motivationWhen I spent a year living in Bolivia in 2008, Evo Morales had already been president for two years. All I know of Bolivia, is a multicultural, pluri-national, open Bolivia countrysince I visited the country for the first time in 2008. Any president I ever identified with the country is Evo Morales. My friends, colleagues and family, especially the younger generation, cannot conceive of a different government because they know nothing else. With next year’s elections coming up, and Evo Morales postulating himself for presidential candidate despite the populations negative vote on a public referendum in 2016 (abbreviated by the term 21F), I want to explore the impact he has had on the country, and more specifically on the identity of its indigenous population. It is my wish to better understand the historical context of his election in 2005 and the circumstances of his politics since then. This will also help me better grasp the emotions and feelings of the local population, family, friends and friends of friends during my travels in Bolivia. Academically I am interested in understanding the many underlying variables and nuances of politics and indigenous identity in the Andean region of Latin America. Practical relevance
Morales creates a cult around his persona. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 3ade1077-5b22-4e14-80d0-e72eb8b4eb5b 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(Postero 2010, p. 26) He is the first indigenous president. He is of humble origins. He is ‘just like everybody else’. He is ‘a brother of the Nation’. People like him helped him become president, people unlike him resent him for his anti-capitalistic, socialist, maybe even Marxist approach to government. Bolivia is divided into two fractions, those who support him and those who oppose him.
Change in perception of Morales
From the conversation with a friend who works in the Ministry for Economy in La Paz and does not remember a different president than Morales: “When I was 18 years old, I used to hate Evo, thinking that that ‘Indio’ could not govern us. Since then I have changed my views and started questioning my reasons. Once I did that I started seeing that he is no different to us, to the Bolivians, so why should he not be able to govern us? All the people who oppose him only do so by saying that they don`t want him because he is indigenous, but they fail to propose a better alternative. If somebody I consider more capable to lead our country were to run for president, no matter whether he is indigenous or not, I would vote for him.”
I am setting out to write down why and how Morales affected the identity of indigenous people in the change Bolivianin society (proof) in the way he has. This is not only important to then understand the way indigenous people feel about themselves, but also the way that the rest of the population thinks about them. It is important for everyone, especiallyFor people living in the everyday Bolivian society it provides a guide to , to understandunderstanding the power of language of their president. The better we understand, the better we can question, and analyse behaviours and propose alternatives. Due to the composition of the Bolivian society (a majority indigenous population) the examined case is rather unique, nonetheless we can learn from the results of this study the role indigeneity plays in influencing indigenous identity. At the same time, the results of this research can be useful for indigenous groups in other countries fighting for their rights. This paper can serve as a tool to understanding ().Scientific relevanceEvo Morales is called the first indigenous president of Bolivia. His upbringing, ethnicity and roots are frequently cited (e.g. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 7e9a644b-0226-4c64-90c9-240dcf4fa895 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 2010, p. 107; ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 46f41c86-560d-4646-aa1f-8bba4e0ec8d7 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Kohl and Bresnahan 2010, p. 5; ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 4c115a32-ddee-48ab-859f-fd3a443685a9 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Postero 2010, p. 18). However, the reference ends with his indigenous roots. He does not refer to himself or his party as being of indigenous design, instead presenting it as a people’s party with steady references to indigeneity. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER b67a8fd8-a8c4-456d-b9ee-de7decc1ee44 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2010, p. 181) ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 5039505e-012c-47f7-8345-59a60f411575 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(2015) examines how indigenous organizations in the lowlands create a counter-discourse to the indigenous discourse by the Morales government. Howard (2010) looks at the decolonial discourse in Bolivia since the election of Morales, but focuses a large part of her attention on non-linguistic issues as well as actors other than Morales. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 37afb5a1-a63d-452e-8c51-0a6b950b1454 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Postero (2013), in the introduction to the special edition of the Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies Journal on ‘The Politics of Indigeneity in Bolivia’ mentions that the authors of this edition look at e.g. the concept of indigeneity and its construction, as well as indigenous identity construction in relation to the past. Many works have been written on identity and more specifically indigenous identity and its construction (e.g. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 220328df-7b25-4010-b4ee-1db364a51ec5 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and Galasi?ski 2001, ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 684f48a2-1dcb-41b0-b356-baefd4229251 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2010 and ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER fc753d81-6f5c-4d8d-b531-37bd992def9b 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None of them however look at how Morales is constructing indigenous identity as an indigenous president. This fact made me wonder about the influences his verbal representations of indigeneity had on indigenous identity.

This thesis will build the foundational work for later analysis research ofn the importance of indigeneity of a leader in The aim of this analysis is to find out, with further research, how important indigeneity of a leader is for the indigenous community to advance and removing e itself indigenous groups from the marginalization of society. In New Zealand, as a country with a vibrant and lively indigenous population, we can observe that while they are not a majority part of the population or of the government and have not provided a prime minister up to this point, their position improved somewhat in the last decades. Not only their economic position but also their personal identity as people of the land and their pride in their heritage changed. In the case of Bolivia, it would be interesting to find out, through further research, whether the fact that Evo Morales is a leader with indigenous roots, made a significant difference in the development of indigenous identity. This paper builds the basis for further research into the field of indigenous identity by analysing how his verbal and visual discourse shaped their identity.This paper will be closing the research gap between the construction of indigenous identity by indigenous people as a marginalized group and the (indigenous) politics of Morales, combining them by looking at the construction of indigenous identity by an indigenous president through critical discourse analysis.This paper is set out to contribute to the scientific discussion of how leader politics can change, shape and influence national identities, but also minority identities through discourse. The case of Bolivia is special, due to the fact, that indigenous people present a majority in the country. Nonetheless, in a time where indigenous movements are gaining more momentum worldwide (proof), understanding the connection between state-led hegemonic discourse and the change it can affect in society is essential to produce further significant research. This research will set the ground work for later comparison studies of political discourse with a focus on indigeneity. It can be explored what difference the politician’s own heritage makes. Can only an indigenous president be a credible representation of indigenous people in their country?Aim and structure of the workThe aim of this paper is to find out, through critical discourse analysis, the way in which Evo Morales’s self-presentation and use of indigenous language and symbols shaped the identity of indigenous peoples in Bolivia. After With thea first short introduction and contextualization of the whole topic in a historical context already completed, we will now take a look at the underlying theories of social constructionism, identity and indigeneity, as well as critical discourse analysis by the way of constructivism and Marxismas conceived by Fairclough and Halliday as well as symbolic and linguistic theory, and then analyse Evo Morales’s 2006 inauguration speech es at Tiahuanaco, his 2009 speech after the Asamblea Constituyente (Constituent Assembly) passed the new constitution and his 2014 victory speech after winning the third election. As this paper examines the influence his political representations had on the indigenous identity in Bolivia, speeches at the UN and other foreign meetings will be disregarded because the extend to which they might have been consumed in Bolivia is seen as limited. Explain why not taking address to the UN and why ending in 2014. Howard (2010, p. 178) suggests that language is used in a multitude of ways to achieve a certain objective; hence this paper will look at the thematic content of the aforementioned speeches, examine the vocabulary and register used by Evo Morales as well as analyse other semiotic channels, specifically the dress and rituals performed for or by Morales at his inauguration in Tiahuanaco in 2006. By looking at speeches and rituals ranging from 2006 to 2014, we can also evaluate the evolution of discourse within this period of time.
Through this process the paper aims at answering the following question: How does Evo Morales’s self-presentation and use of indigenous language and symbols shape the identity of indigenous peoples in Bolivia?
Theoretical frameworkThe theoretical framework lies the groundwork for the critical discourse analysis that will follow. This paper looks specifically at social constructionism to understand how our realities are constructed, and more specifically how identities are created and changed. To begin we will look at theories of self-presentation, symbols and language and the construction of identity through these three tools before we explore how to analyse collective identity in discourse. Self-presentationMorales creates a cult around his persona. 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“Historical and cultural specificity”;
“Knowledge is sustained by social processes”; and
“Knowledge and social action go together”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER b4a568cd-9f9e-4a4a-a3fe-3a5a47b5ea80 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(Burr 2003, pp. 2–5)
To better understand how these four “things” came to be, we have to look back at one of the founding works for social constructionism, the 1966 book ‘The social construction of reality’ by Berger and Luckmann. Here we can find explanations of how the world is understood from a constructionist point of view.

To understand how our social reality, our institutions and knowledge were created the world needs to be simplified back to just having two people in it because as we know the world right nowin the world we know today everything in it has already gone through the process Berger and Luckmann (1990, 1966) describe in their book. that wWhat humans perceive as their reality has been created by themselves through the continuous interaction with their creation. (p. 76) They go on to say that this process stems out of the habitualization of activities performed initially by one person and then, through observance of these habits, being typified through his interaction with a second person. This typification allows both people to predict what the other person will do and thus removes uncertainty and stress from their interactions. While this does not yet classify as institutionalized, “it is clear that institutionalization is already present in nucleo”. 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This process is called objectivation. When the social world is first created by someone it is very subjective but passing it down through the generations makes it more objective because the objective acceptance of the descendants reflects back on the creators. Basically, as Berger and Luckmann (1966) put it, the process of doing something goes from “Here we go again” to “This is how these things are done”. (p. 77) This completes the process of institutionalization. (p. 76) “It is important to keep in mind that the objectivity of the institutional world, however massive it may appear to the individual, is a humanly produced, constructed objectivity.” As stated at the beginning of this paragraph, humans are in constant interaction with the social world they created, it is a “dialectical relationship”. 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But the definitions are always embodied, that is, concrete individuals and groups of individuals serve as definers of reality.” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 2e8eb410-1d64-4563-b090-4c8076328511 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(Berger and Luckmann 1990, 1966, p. 135) Therefore, knowledge, while seeming objective only comes from objectified subjectivities, is socially constructed and should not be taken for granted but questioned. Language, as everything else in the constructionist view, is a product of our processes of assigning meaning to things, in this case to different letters and the words these letters from. Signs and sign systems are special forms of objectivation because they are detachable from the subjective meaning they originate from. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 1f9a7c43-f65a-4898-91ba-253a15718d66 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and Luckmann 1990, 1966, p. 51) “Language … is the most important sign system of human society.” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER a158b877-9db8-49a7-a7c1-aa521bb99e35 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and Luckmann 1990, 1966, p. 51) Its complexity allows for it to be the storage and carrier for knowledge from one generation to the next and beyond. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 8ba9bdbc-7113-4fa9-b42d-af40741a0df6 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(Berger and Luckmann 1990, 1966, p. 52) Language is also the basis “for thought as we know it”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 592504e1-0cc3-4c00-96bf-23478719ccd1 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(Burr 2003, p. 8) Social constructionism by that definition allows for language to be the changing agent of our reality. “With language, we create representations of reality that are never mere reflections of a pre-existing reality but contribute to constructing reality.” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER cfe539e7-9d6f-452a-9a91-6bea1e38aec6 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and Phillips 2002, pp. 8–9) Through language we can change the meaning we have previously ascribed to certain objectified realities. This goes with the “thing” on Burr’s list of what classifies a social constructionist, namely the cultural and historical specificity. The way in which we understand our reality and our knowledge is created, is dependent on the cultural and historic circumstances at the time. At the same time, this means that the existence of many different cultures creates many different realities, and for social constructionists, one is not better than the other. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 5919a62c-a5ba-4ab2-b528-e77188346d6a 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(Burr 2003, pp. 3–4) They could therefore be said to have adopted a cultural relativist view of the world.

Indigeneity and identityAt continuation, we will look at the definitions of identity, how identity is constructed and what that means for indigenous identity. As the paper is exploring the impact that the political speeches of Evo Morales have on the indigenous identity, understanding the concept of identity in the first place is vital to the understanding of this research.

Identity in generalIdentity is widely used across all fields of academic research, therefore there is a multitude of definitions available. “In the philosophical sense an identity is whatever makes a thing what it is.” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 960ad7de-8f6b-42d6-957e-d3ed12c355f4 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(Wendt 1999, p. 224) “A ‘linguistics applied’ perspective views identity as a set of essential characteristics unique to individuals, independent of language, and unchanging across contexts. Language users can display their identities, but they cannot affect them in any way.” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER adbb34d5-e715-4ab0-89b3-7a8f466c419c 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(Hall 2012, pp. 30–31) From the socio-cultural perspective, identity “is viewed as socially constituted, a reflexive, dynamic product of the social, historical and political contexts of an individual’s lived experiences”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 287fd945-8b1b-4e96-9867-fa22850c3c57 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(Hall 2012, p. 31)
This last definition goes with our basis for critical discourse analysis, social constructionism and shall therefore be used as our understanding of what identity is. At continuation we will look at how identity is constructed according to social constructionists and what effect discourse can have on it.Identity construction and identity in constructionismvismLabelling – who does Evo Morales label indigenous people and what effects does that have?Wendt (1999), similarly to Hall (2012) characterizes identity as a subjective quality of how an actor understands himself, generating within him behavioural and motivational characteristics. However, it also depends on how other actors see the actor, thus leaving us with two influences that determine identity, the internal and the external structures. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER aec693de-3d84-4201-b65c-6d8f54584736 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(p. 224) He continues by naming four different types of identity, based on his assumption that the relationship between the internal and external structures varies (ibid, p. 224): 
1) personal or corporate
2) type
3) role
4) collectiveThe first category, Wendt (1999) stipulates, is characterized by the idea that an identity has a material base and a sense of consciousness “as a separate locus of thought and activity”, which is what separates people’s identities from that of animals. The ‘personal’ identity is thus not dependent on oOthers. It is rather “a site or platform for other identities”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 63929e1b-c41d-4e21-a2c6-517ce813278e 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(Wendt 1999, pp. 224–225)
The term “type” identity, which Wendt borrows from Fearon (1997), refers to certain characteristics which constitute social meaning and are shared by persons, such as appearance, values, skills, knowledge, experience, historical commonalitiesshared history and so on. This broad definition enables an actor to have more than one ‘type’ identity at a time. It also implies that the categorization of what makes a characteristic have has social meaning, relies on the definition of others and does thus have an “inherently cultural dimension”. (ibid, p. 226) Wendt explains this with an example of homosexuality by saying that “there have always been people who had sex with other members of the same sex, for example, but they only became “homosexuals,” with its attendant social consequences, in the nineteenth century”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 3113ab22-8d40-4ee2-8e91-a738b3019e24 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNy4wLjA8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPjMxMTNhYjIyLThkNDAtNGVlMi04ZTkxLWE3MzhiMzAxOWUyNDwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPmU1YjJhOTA0LWE3NjctNGFkYS1hODIwLWNkNmU4Mzg4Y2EyNDwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD4xZjJkOGQ2MC02NTBjLTQ4ZDktODhiMy00ODg2ZTYwYTNlZjQ8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjIyNTwvbj4NCiAgPGluPnRydWU8L2luPg0KICA8b3M+MjI1PC9vcz4NCiAgPHBzPjIyNTwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPGVwPg0KICA8bj4yMjY8L24+DQogIDxpbj50cnVlPC9pbj4NCiAgPG9zPjIyNjwvb3M+DQogIDxwcz4yMjY8L3BzPg0KPC9lcD4NCjxvcz4yMjXigJMyMjY8L29zPl1dPjwvUGFnZVJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgPEVuZFBhZ2U+MjI2PC9FbmRQYWdlPg0KICAgICAgPFN0YXJ0UGFnZT4yMjU8L1N0YXJ0UGFnZT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1lcmFsU3lzdGVtPkFyYWJpYzwvTnVtZXJhbFN5c3RlbT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1iZXJpbmdUeXBlPlBhZ2U8L051bWJlcmluZ1R5cGU+DQogICAgICA8UXVvdGF0aW9uVHlwZT5TdW1tYXJ5PC9RdW90YXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZUlkPmM5ZmEzYmM3LTMwYWItNDZhNC1iNDI2LTJjNWVlZWM4ZWZiZjwvUmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+DQogICAgICA8UmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydD4wPC9TdGFydD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExlbmd0aD4yNTwvTGVuZ3RoPg0KICAgICAgPC9SYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+Qm9vazwvUmVmZXJlbmNlVHlwZUlkPg0KICAgICAgICA8QXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEZpcnN0TmFtZT5BbGV4YW5kZXI8L0ZpcnN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMYXN0TmFtZT5XZW5kdDwvTGFzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8U2V4Pk1hbGU8L1NleD4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9BdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICA8SWQ+YzlmYTNiYzctMzBhYi00NmE0LWI0MjYtMmM1ZWVlYzhlZmJmPC9JZD4NCiAgICAgICAgPElzYm4+MDUyMTQ2OTYwMDwvSXNibj4NCiAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5XZW5kdCAxOTk5IC0gU29jaWFsIHRoZW9yeSBvZiBpbnRlcm5hdGlvbmFsIHBvbGl0aWNzLnBkZjwvQWRkcmVzcz4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+RWxlY3Ryb25pY0FkZHJlc3M8L0xvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L0xvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L0xvY2F0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgPFBsYWNlT2ZQdWJsaWNhdGlvbj5DYW1icmlkZ2U8L1BsYWNlT2ZQdWJsaWNhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFB1Ymxpc2hlcnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFB1Ymxpc2hlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxOYW1lPkNhbWJyaWRnZSBVbml2ZXJzaXR5IFByZXNzPC9OYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUHVibGlzaGVyPg0KICAgICAgICA8L1B1Ymxpc2hlcnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxQcmljZT7CozE0Ljk1PC9QcmljZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNlcmllc1RpdGxlPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxOYW1lPkNhbWJyaWRnZSBzdHVkaWVzIGluIGludGVybmF0aW9uYWwgcmVsYXRpb25zPC9OYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICA8L1Nlcmllc1RpdGxlPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+MjM8L1NlcXVlbmNlTnVtYmVyPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2hvcnRUaXRsZT5XZW5kdCAxOTk5IOKAkyBTb2NpYWwgdGhlb3J5IG9mIGludGVybmF0aW9uYWwgcG9saXRpY3M8L1Nob3J0VGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxTb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj5UaGUgQnJpdGlzaCBMaWJyYXJ5PC9Tb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFRpdGxlPlNvY2lhbCB0aGVvcnkgb2YgaW50ZXJuYXRpb25hbCBwb2xpdGljczwvVGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxWb2x1bWU+Njc8L1ZvbHVtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFllYXI+MTk5OTwvWWVhcj4NCiAgICAgIDwvUmVmZXJlbmNlPg0KICAgIDwvRW50cnk+DQogIDwvRW50cmllcz4NCiAgPFRleHQ+KFdlbmR0IDE5OTksIHBwLsKgMjI14oCTMjI2KTwvVGV4dD4NCiAgPFRleHRVbml0cz4NCiAgICA8VGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogICAgICA8SW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+ZmFsc2U8L0luc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPg0KICAgICAgPEZvbnROYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udFN0eWxlPg0KICAgICAgICA8TmV1dHJhbD50cnVlPC9OZXV0cmFsPg0KICAgICAgICA8TmFtZSAvPg0KICAgICAgPC9Gb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udFNpemU+MDwvRm9udFNpemU+DQogICAgICA8VGV4dD4oV2VuZHQgMTk5OSwgcHAuwqAyMjXigJMyMjYpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICAgIDwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogIDwvVGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KPC9QbGFjZWhvbGRlcj4=(Wendt 1999, pp. 225–226)
Where ‘type’ identity depends on Others but can exist independently from them, ‘role’ identity is solely reliant on culture and thus Others. ‘Role’ identities are fulfilled within the social structure and cannot exist outside these structures. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER acc8fc55-7abb-431f-9060-0215e3bb3c31 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNy4wLjA8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPmFjYzhmYzU1LTdhYmItNDMxZi05MDYwLTAyMTVlM2JiM2MzMTwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPmY1ZTA1YjY5LTU5ZTUtNGIwNy05YThiLTA1YTY1NWYzY2ZhODwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD42YTcwZWU0OS04ZjdhLTQ4ZGYtOTM2NC1jOTk3Mjc4MDJhOGE8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjIyNzwvbj4NCiAgPGluPnRydWU8L2luPg0KICA8b3M+MjI3PC9vcz4NCiAgPHBzPjIyNzwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPG9zPjIyNzwvb3M+XV0+PC9QYWdlUmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICA8U3RhcnRQYWdlPjIyNzwvU3RhcnRQYWdlPg0KICAgICAgPE51bWVyYWxTeXN0ZW0+QXJhYmljPC9OdW1lcmFsU3lzdGVtPg0KICAgICAgPE51bWJlcmluZ1R5cGU+UGFnZTwvTnVtYmVyaW5nVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgIDxRdW90YXRpb25UeXBlPlN1bW1hcnk8L1F1b3RhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICA8UmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+YzlmYTNiYzctMzBhYi00NmE0LWI0MjYtMmM1ZWVlYzhlZmJmPC9SZWZlcmVuY2VJZD4NCiAgICAgIDxSYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFN0YXJ0PjA8L1N0YXJ0Pg0KICAgICAgICA8TGVuZ3RoPjIwPC9MZW5ndGg+DQogICAgICA8L1JhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZVR5cGVJZD5Cb29rPC9SZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxBdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxQZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8Rmlyc3ROYW1lPkFsZXhhbmRlcjwvRmlyc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExhc3ROYW1lPldlbmR0PC9MYXN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxTZXg+TWFsZTwvU2V4Pg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L0F1dGhvcnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxJZD5jOWZhM2JjNy0zMGFiLTQ2YTQtYjQyNi0yYzVlZWVjOGVmYmY8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgICA8SXNibj4wNTIxNDY5NjAwPC9Jc2JuPg0KICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxBZGRyZXNzPldlbmR0IDE5OTkgLSBTb2NpYWwgdGhlb3J5IG9mIGludGVybmF0aW9uYWwgcG9saXRpY3MucGRmPC9BZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT5FbGVjdHJvbmljQWRkcmVzczwvTG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICA8UGxhY2VPZlB1YmxpY2F0aW9uPkNhbWJyaWRnZTwvUGxhY2VPZlB1YmxpY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICA8UHVibGlzaGVycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UHVibGlzaGVyPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPE5hbWU+Q2FtYnJpZGdlIFVuaXZlcnNpdHkgUHJlc3M8L05hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QdWJsaXNoZXI+DQogICAgICAgIDwvUHVibGlzaGVycz4NCiAgICAgICAgPFByaWNlPsKjMTQuOTU8L1ByaWNlPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2VyaWVzVGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPE5hbWU+Q2FtYnJpZGdlIHN0dWRpZXMgaW4gaW50ZXJuYXRpb25hbCByZWxhdGlvbnM8L05hbWU+DQogICAgICAgIDwvU2VyaWVzVGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxTZXF1ZW5jZU51bWJlcj4yMzwvU2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+DQogICAgICAgIDxTaG9ydFRpdGxlPldlbmR0IDE5OTkg4oCTIFNvY2lhbCB0aGVvcnkgb2YgaW50ZXJuYXRpb25hbCBwb2xpdGljczwvU2hvcnRUaXRsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNvdXJjZU9mQmlibGlvZ3JhcGhpY0luZm9ybWF0aW9uPlRoZSBCcml0aXNoIExpYnJhcnk8L1NvdXJjZU9mQmlibGlvZ3JhcGhpY0luZm9ybWF0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICA8VGl0bGU+U29jaWFsIHRoZW9yeSBvZiBpbnRlcm5hdGlvbmFsIHBvbGl0aWNzPC9UaXRsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFZvbHVtZT42NzwvVm9sdW1lPg0KICAgICAgICA8WWVhcj4xOTk5PC9ZZWFyPg0KICAgICAgPC9SZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgPC9FbnRyeT4NCiAgPC9FbnRyaWVzPg0KICA8VGV4dD4oV2VuZHQgMTk5OSwgcC7CoDIyNyk8L1RleHQ+DQogIDxUZXh0VW5pdHM+DQogICAgPFRleHRVbml0Pg0KICAgICAgPEluc2VydFBhcmFncmFwaEFmdGVyPmZhbHNlPC9JbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250TmFtZSAvPg0KICAgICAgPEZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPE5ldXRyYWw+dHJ1ZTwvTmV1dHJhbD4NCiAgICAgICAgPE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDwvRm9udFN0eWxlPg0KICAgICAgPEZvbnRTaXplPjA8L0ZvbnRTaXplPg0KICAgICAgPFRleHQ+KFdlbmR0IDE5OTksIHAuwqAyMjcpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICAgIDwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogIDwvVGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KPC9QbGFjZWhvbGRlcj4=(Wendt 1999, p. 227) A politician is only a politician as long as he finds himself within the social construct of politics. Without the ideas of elections and government, he might be considered an activist but not a politician. “When those parameters are breached, or absent to start with, then role identities are contested.” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 287efeb2-7e1d-41d1-a60f-8d1b5cbfa321 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(Wendt 1999, p. 227)
‘Collective’ identity in the end is the result of the process of blurring the lines of distinction between Self and Other. It builds up on ‘type’ and ‘role’ identities by using the ‘role’, not to differentiate between Self and Other, but to merge them, and the ‘type’ as an identification with shared characteristics. ‘Collective’ identities have the “casual power” to define the wellbeing of others as an integral part to the wellbeing of oneself. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER c8d80978-53cf-4d3c-b033-7aed31ffd645 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(Wendt 1999, p. 229)
‘Collective’ identity in academic literature is often referred to when talking about national identity, though the author of this paper stipulates that ‘collective’ identity can also be applied to a sub-national group that is in itself composed of many different groups that share the common characteristic of being indigenous. For this purpose, it is essential to define what indigenous identity is and how indigenous groups are demarked exactly as such.
Indigenous identityFrom an instrumentalist perspective, the definition of indigeneity or indigenous identity is dependent on the circumstances at the time. Political, societal and economic conditions of the group in question determine the necessity for and strength of the ascribed identity. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 4e5f9cdf-c2db-4614-86e4-554bc5968965 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2010, p. 84) This goes hand in hand with the point Barker and Galasi?ski (2001) make: Identities are not fixed but vary according to our experiences and social realities. “Identity, it is argued, is not best understood as an entity but as an emotionally charged description of ourselves.” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 35f425b6-7d7b-458f-aa2b-64b491d9b088 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The World Council of Indigenous Peoples defines “indigenous peoples as people living in countries which have populations composed of different ethnic or racial groups who are descendants of the earliest populations which survive in the area, and who do not, as a group, control the national government of the countries in which they live.” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER e6f4801f-9721-4806-8545-ebbbbb6ecc50 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(Corntassel 2010, p. 90) By this definition, depending on the understanding of group in this context, the indigenous people in Bolivia ceased to classify as indigenous the moment Morales took office in January 2006. However, their mere representation in government by a leader with indigenous roots did not change the overall identity of indigenous people as descendants of the earliest surviving population, neither does it take away their distinct culture and language. The definition of indigenous identity is frequently mixed their right to self-determination, nonetheless, it is internationally agreed that while the definition should be flexible, some guidelines are required. This paper does not set out to redefine what indigenous identity is, however, an understanding of how it works and plays out in the political context is required to be able to answer the research question.
The political scientist, Ted Gurr, under the category ‘national peoples’ sub-defined indigenous as separate from ethnonationalist by ascribing the existence of a “stable state of their own prior to conquest” only to ethnonationalist groups. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER fcc4b5b3-93c8-4574-990b-bc3376e5b651 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(Corntassel 2010, p. 79) This then begs the question whether Quechua as part of the Inca Empire before conquest would be considered indigenous. What is however more important for this research paper is possibly the definition by Kingsbury who “advocates maximum flexibility while establishing four ‘essential requirements’: Self-identification as a distinct ethnic group, historical experience of, or contingent vulnerabilitiy to, severe disruption, dislocation or exploitation, long connection with the region and the wish to retain a distinct identity.” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 890a2c62-5cdf-48da-bb07-4c70f4301f26 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(Corntassel 2010, p. 81, my italics) Self-identification in this case can be related back to the previous chapter on identity, and Wendt’s definition of collective identity as the blurring of line between self and other by extending the boundaries of the self to include the other. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER a78b4134-9874-4baa-9c6e-949d6f0eb1b4 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(Wendt 1999, p. 229) At this point the author would stipulate, that considering a collective identity can be a nation, it can also be anything in-between where people share a specific ‘role’ and identify with one another via this ‘role’. In the case of indigenous collective identity, it is then important how strongly either specific differences are expressed to create a divide between different indigenous cultures (the principle of ‘divide and conquer’), or commonalities are emphasised to create a shared indigenous identity of different tribes. The latter might be considered a part of strategic essentialism, where the identity of a group is boiled down it its essentials in a strategic manner, e.g. to achieve the common overhead goal of more political participation or self-determination.
Has Morales’s movement and institution as president redefined what indigenous is generally? Has it challenged universally established understandings, in so far as the indigenous people in Bolivia are now the ruling class and the shapers of the nation’s destiny? Or does his identity as indigenous not play a role in the context of governing the country? Does it matter how he himself defines his movement?Indigenous symbols and languageTurner (1975) as well as Cohen (1979) define the real power of symbols to lie in their ambiguity. This potential for dual meaning is what separates symbols from signs, in that the latter is first and foremost ‘political’ and associated with relations of power, whereas the former is also based in the “human condition”. 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Both present its problems by either being too broad (including the whole social sciences into political sciences) or too narrow (excluding tribal and preindustrial societies from the study of political sciences). ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 813b64cd-a2a9-4a01-8eba-d61baeedb6de 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(Cohen 1979, p. 88) He therefore defines power to be the “relations of domination and subordination”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 509e79e2-fed3-40e0-8ffb-e73d4d2ca367 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(ibid, p. 88) National symbols are used to create an emotional link between the person and the Nation. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 4f9ead4e-f091-4cef-b8ff-7cb759fdd25b 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(Butz 2009, p. 780)National symbols as agents of changeAndean weaving pattern in Evo Morales’s official dressing styleWhipala as part of the 2009 constitution, as dual-flag of BoliviaConstitution recognizes 36 different nations as part of the plurinational country of BoliviaCollective Identity in Discourse AnalysisTo expand on the concept of collective identity introduced above the text by Koller (2012) will be examined at continuation. Her understanding of collective identity describes them as being continuously shaped through interaction. (p. 20) Social cognitive theory says that humans learn behaviours not simply by trial and error but by observing other humans’ actions and their outcomes. Based on those observations they decide to replicate the action or not. Therefore, collective identity can be shaped through interaction within the group, but also with other groups. If we consider the indigenous people of Bolivia to be one group, who either interact among themselves, or with other groups, i.e. non-indigenous people in Bolivia, we can analyse the effect that the interactions have. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 626f6da8-60ff-46e5-a9cc-851f26aa50cf 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(Koller 2012, p. 20) As in every social interaction, stereotypes often help humans classify the behaviour of a person as either belonging to a specific group or not and thereby defining that person’s group membership. However, stereotypes generally only apply to one part of a group, i.e. a subgroup, but through metonymy come to be regarded as representative of the whole group. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 3b3e48ce-70a9-4ff2-8bee-5eb9bd104555 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(Koller 2012, p. 20)
Indigeneity can be considered a binary categorization – the person either defines himself as indigenous or he doesn’t (of course this leaves still the possibility of identifying with a variety of other things, as discussed above in Chapter 2.3.2). According to Koller (2012), “the elements of one social group are ipso facto seen as incompatible with the stereotype of the respective other group”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 1fb67fe0-70c9-41ca-8cc1-088e432d045f 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(Koller 2012, p. 21) In the context of Bolivia by this definition, if the non-indigenous group is regarded as the ruling class, the indigenous group cannot be the ruling class. Here we can set out to see how a possible new definition of ruling class vs. non-ruling class affects the identity of indigenous people in relation to themselves and others.
As mentioned above socio-cognitive representations (SCR) are created through communication between individuals and within or between groups and influenced by discourse. This allows the conclusion, as Koller (2012) points out, that “SCRs are at least partially constituted intertextually”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 90a36675-21d8-4f19-920b-a765d146de12 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(Koller 2012, p. 21) Critical discourse analysis, and more specifically in this case, Fairclough’s in combination with Halliday’s framework, provides therefore the right tool for analysis as it takes the discursive, as well as societal circumstances into account when analysing texts. This method will be discussed in greater detail in the next chapter on methodology.
Connecting theoriesTo be able to successfully analyse the effects of Evo Morales’s speech on the identity of indigenous people in Bolivia between 2006 and 2014, many different factors must be taken into account. This chapter on the theoretical frameworks drawn from and applied in this paper served the purpose of establishing a general understanding of what assumptions are at the basis of this paper. All the mentioned theories contribute to a better understanding of discourse analysis, as social constructionism is at its basis through providing an understanding of our social reality as a construction. Identity and its formation are relevant parts since this thesis aims to understand how indigenous identity was shaped through political speeches.

Research QuestionBased on the theoretical framework introduced above, this paper sets out to answer the question: How does Evo Morales’s use of indigenous language and symbols shape indigenous identity in Bolivia?
MethodologyResearch DesignAs stated in the introduction, as well as the theoretical framework, this paper relies on critical discourse analysis as its qualitative tool of analysis for a specific situation. The first part of the discourse analysis will involve a quantitative element, thus giving the whole paper a mixed methods approach.
Halliday’s functional systemic grammar requires us to quantitatively analyse the content of the speeches. This allows us to determine how the speaker structures his language, what form of information transfer dominates. The qualitative analysis of the functional grammar focuses on how he presents specific information by looking at what process was chosen to transfer what kind of information. The qualitative analysis continues when we look at the discursive and social practice surrounding the text.
Discourse AnalysisFairclough (2001) is of the opinion that critical discourse analysis is “as much theory as method”. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 5243f4cf-e77a-4720-b5d5-44c5877128c8 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Jørgensen and Phillips (2002) determine the CDA approach to be holistic, including a philosophical, theoretical and methodological framework for analysis and emphasise that these building blocks of CDA can be assembled by the researchers themselves. 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Fairclough’s analysis of discourse involves three levels; the linguistic composition of the text, the discursive practice of consumption and production of the text and the social practice surrounding the event. 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Figure 1 Critical Discourse Analysis by Fairclough and Halliday
When analysing the discursive patterns of a text, the focus should lie on an approach that examines the interdiscursivity and intertextuality of the text at hand. This means that the degree to which the text draws on other texts and discourses should be established as well as what specific texts and discourses it draws from. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 808c9a70-3466-4723-9905-d2c32cfc74e9 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNy4wLjA8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPjgwOGM5YTcwLTM0NjYtNDcyMy05OTA1LWQyYzMyY2ZjNzRlOTwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPmNiYjg1Njk2LThiNTQtNDhjZS05MzQwLTkyNDEzNmU3ZDkwOTwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD4zNWFkZmM2My1iMjIxLTQ0MWItYTU0NC0wNzljNjJkYTllMWI8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjY5PC9uPg0KICA8aW4+dHJ1ZTwvaW4+DQogIDxvcz42OTwvb3M+DQogIDxwcz42OTwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPG9zPjY5PC9vcz5dXT48L1BhZ2VSYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxTdGFydFBhZ2U+Njk8L1N0YXJ0UGFnZT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1lcmFsU3lzdGVtPkFyYWJpYzwvTnVtZXJhbFN5c3RlbT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1iZXJpbmdUeXBlPlBhZ2U8L051bWJlcmluZ1R5cGU+DQogICAgICA8UXVvdGF0aW9uVHlwZT5JbmRpcmVjdFF1b3RhdGlvbjwvUXVvdGF0aW9uVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VJZD41ODQxZjljMy01YzRjLTRmODEtYmQ3OS04ZWQxZGI3MGEzZjk8L1JlZmVyZW5jZUlkPg0KICAgICAgPFJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgICA8U3RhcnQ+MDwvU3RhcnQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxMZW5ndGg+MzY8L0xlbmd0aD4NCiAgICAgIDwvUmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICA8UmVmZXJlbmNlPg0KICAgICAgICA8UmVmZXJlbmNlVHlwZUlkPkJvb2s8L1JlZmVyZW5jZVR5cGVJZD4NCiAgICAgICAgPEF1dGhvcnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFBlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxGaXJzdE5hbWU+TWFyaWFubmU8L0ZpcnN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMYXN0TmFtZT5Kw7hyZ2Vuc2VuPC9MYXN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxTZXg+RmVtYWxlPC9TZXg+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFBlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxGaXJzdE5hbWU+TG91aXNlPC9GaXJzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+UGhpbGxpcHM8L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPFNleD5GZW1hbGU8L1NleD4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9BdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICA8SWQ+NTg0MWY5YzMtNWM0Yy00ZjgxLWJkNzktOGVkMWRiNzBhM2Y5PC9JZD4NCiAgICAgICAgPElzYm4+MDc2MTk3MTExNDwvSXNibj4NCiAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5odHRwOi8vd3d3LmxvYy5nb3YvY2F0ZGlyL2VuaGFuY2VtZW50cy9meTA2NTgvMjAwMjEwMjI4NC1kLmh0bWw8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5odHRwOi8vd3d3LmxvYy5nb3YvY2F0ZGlyL2VuaGFuY2VtZW50cy9meTA2NTgvMjAwMjEwMjI4NC10Lmh0bWw8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8Tm90ZXM+VGFibGUgb2YgY29udGVudHM8L05vdGVzPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEFkZHJlc3M+SsO4cmdlbnNlbiwgUGhpbGxpcHMgMjAwMiAtIERpc2NvdXJzZSBhbmFseXNpcyBhcyB0aGVvcnkucGRmPC9BZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT5FbGVjdHJvbmljQWRkcmVzczwvTG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICA8UGFnZUNvdW50QzU+PCFbQ0RBVEFbPGM+MjI5PC9jPg0KPG9zPnZpaWksIDIyOSAgOzwvb3M+DQo8cHM+dmlpaSwgMjI5ICA7PC9wcz5dXT48L1BhZ2VDb3VudEM1Pg0KICAgICAgICA8UGFnZUNvdW50PnZpaWksIDIyOSAgOzwvUGFnZUNvdW50Pg0KICAgICAgICA8UGxhY2VPZlB1YmxpY2F0aW9uPkxvbmRvbjsgVGhvdXNhbmQgT2FrcyBDYWxpZi48L1BsYWNlT2ZQdWJsaWNhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFB1Ymxpc2hlcnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFB1Ymxpc2hlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxOYW1lPlNhZ2UgUHVibGljYXRpb25zPC9OYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUHVibGlzaGVyPg0KICAgICAgICA8L1B1Ymxpc2hlcnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxTZXF1ZW5jZU51bWJlcj4yMTwvU2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+DQogICAgICAgIDxTaG9ydFRpdGxlPkrDuHJnZW5zZW4sIFBoaWxsaXBzIDIwMDIg4oCTIERpc2NvdXJzZSBhbmFseXNpcyBhcyB0aGVvcnk8L1Nob3J0VGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxTb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj5MaWJyYXJ5IG9mIENvbmdyZXNzPC9Tb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFRpdGxlPkRpc2NvdXJzZSBhbmFseXNpcyBhcyB0aGVvcnkgYW5kIG1ldGhvZDwvVGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxZZWFyPjIwMDI8L1llYXI+DQogICAgICA8L1JlZmVyZW5jZT4NCiAgICA8L0VudHJ5Pg0KICA8L0VudHJpZXM+DQogIDxUZXh0PihKw7hyZ2Vuc2VuIGFuZCBQaGlsbGlwcyAyMDAyLCBwLsKgNjkpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICA8VGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KICAgIDxUZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgICAgIDxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+DQogICAgICAgIDxOYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT4NCiAgICAgIDxUZXh0PihKw7hyZ2Vuc2VuIGFuZCBQaGlsbGlwcyAyMDAyLCBwLsKgNjkpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICAgIDwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogIDwvVGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KPC9QbGFjZWhvbGRlcj4=(Jørgensen and Phillips 2002, p. 69)
The textual analysis busies itself with the interpretation of the linguistic structures used in the text. To this end the three-functions approach by Halliday will be integrated into Fairclough’s first step of analysis. Halliday’s systemic linguistics which is frequently combined with CDA lets us assume that text is multifunctional. This characteristic of the text is represented in its three functions; the ideational, the interpersonal and the textual. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 9cdd5c27-89f1-4c1a-ab62-39c6a4ee0ba8 PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNy4wLjA8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPjljZGQ1YzI3LTg5ZjEtNGMxYS1hYjYyLTM5YzZhNGVlMGJhODwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxBc3NvY2lhdGVXaXRoS25vd2xlZGdlSXRlbUlkPjNlODgwMGZlLTlkNWUtNDE5Yi05NTZjLWU1MzIzYjc1MWVhMjwvQXNzb2NpYXRlV2l0aEtub3dsZWRnZUl0ZW1JZD4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD4wODk0N2UxOC1iYTI4LTRiZjktOGQ3Ni0xMzEwZGQyMTEzOWE8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFBhZ2VSYW5nZT48IVtDREFUQVs8c3A+DQogIDxuPjY2PC9uPg0KICA8aW4+dHJ1ZTwvaW4+DQogIDxvcz42Njwvb3M+DQogIDxwcz42NjwvcHM+DQo8L3NwPg0KPG9zPjY2PC9vcz5dXT48L1BhZ2VSYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxTdGFydFBhZ2U+NjY8L1N0YXJ0UGFnZT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1lcmFsU3lzdGVtPkFyYWJpYzwvTnVtZXJhbFN5c3RlbT4NCiAgICAgIDxOdW1iZXJpbmdUeXBlPlBhZ2U8L051bWJlcmluZ1R5cGU+DQogICAgICA8UXVvdGF0aW9uVHlwZT5JbmRpcmVjdFF1b3RhdGlvbjwvUXVvdGF0aW9uVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VJZD4wZjFkZjgxYy1lNjdkLTQ2ZWUtOTAzNC1iYzk2MWY0MDFhZTk8L1JlZmVyZW5jZUlkPg0KICAgICAgPFJhbmdlPg0KICAgICAgICA8U3RhcnQ+MDwvU3RhcnQ+DQogICAgICAgIDxMZW5ndGg+MzU8L0xlbmd0aD4NCiAgICAgIDwvUmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICA8UmVmZXJlbmNlPg0KICAgICAgICA8UmVmZXJlbmNlVHlwZUlkPkJvb2s8L1JlZmVyZW5jZVR5cGVJZD4NCiAgICAgICAgPEF1dGhvcnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFBlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxGaXJzdE5hbWU+Q2hyaXM8L0ZpcnN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMYXN0TmFtZT5CYXJrZXI8L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPFNleD5NYWxlPC9TZXg+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QZXJzb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFBlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxGaXJzdE5hbWU+RGFyaXVzejwvRmlyc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExhc3ROYW1lPkdhbGFzacWEc2tpPC9MYXN0TmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9BdXRob3JzPg0KICAgICAgICA8SWQ+MGYxZGY4MWMtZTY3ZC00NmVlLTkwMzQtYmM5NjFmNDAxYWU5PC9JZD4NCiAgICAgICAgPElzYm4+OTc4MTQ0NjIxOTI0OTwvSXNibj4NCiAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5odHRwOi8vd3d3LndvcmxkY2F0Lm9yZy9vY2xjLzcwNzczOTEyPC9BZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT5FbGVjdHJvbmljQWRkcmVzczwvTG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEFkZHJlc3M+QmFya2VyLCBHYWxhc2nFhHNraSAyMDAxIC0gQ3VsdHVyYWwgc3R1ZGllcyBhbmQgZGlzY291cnNlIGFuYWx5c2lzLnBkZjwvQWRkcmVzcz4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+RWxlY3Ryb25pY0FkZHJlc3M8L0xvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L0xvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxBZGRyZXNzPkJhcmtlciwgR2FsYXNpxYRza2kgMjAwMSAtIEN1bHR1cmFsIHN0dWRpZXMgYW5kIGRpc2NvdXJzZSBhbmFseXNpcyAoMikucGRmPC9BZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT5FbGVjdHJvbmljQWRkcmVzczwvTG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEFkZHJlc3M+QmFya2VyLCBHYWxhc2nFhHNraSAyMDAxIC0gQ3VsdHVyYWwgc3R1ZGllcyBhbmQgZGlzY291cnNlIGFuYWx5c2lzICgzKS5wZGY8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5CYXJrZXIsIEdhbGFzacWEc2tpIDIwMDEgLSBDdWx0dXJhbCBzdHVkaWVzIGFuZCBkaXNjb3Vyc2UgYW5hbHlzaXMgKDQpLnBkZjwvQWRkcmVzcz4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+RWxlY3Ryb25pY0FkZHJlc3M8L0xvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L0xvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L0xvY2F0aW9ucz4NCiAgICAgICAgPFBhZ2VDb3VudEM1PjwhW0NEQVRBWzxjPjE5MzwvYz4NCjxvcz4xIG9ubGluZSByZXNvdXJjZSAodmlpaSwgMTkyPC9vcz4NCjxwcz4xIG9ubGluZSByZXNvdXJjZSAodmlpaSwgMTkyPC9wcz5dXT48L1BhZ2VDb3VudEM1Pg0KICAgICAgICA8UGFnZUNvdW50PjEgb25saW5lIHJlc291cmNlICh2aWlpLCAxOTI8L1BhZ2VDb3VudD4NCiAgICAgICAgPFBsYWNlT2ZQdWJsaWNhdGlvbj5Mb25kb247IFRob3VzYW5kIE9ha3MgW0NhbGlmLl08L1BsYWNlT2ZQdWJsaWNhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFB1Ymxpc2hlcnM+DQogICAgICAgICAgPFB1Ymxpc2hlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxOYW1lPlNhZ2U8L05hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9QdWJsaXNoZXI+DQogICAgICAgIDwvUHVibGlzaGVycz4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNlcXVlbmNlTnVtYmVyPjE4PC9TZXF1ZW5jZU51bWJlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNob3J0VGl0bGU+QmFya2VyLCBHYWxhc2nFhHNraSAyMDAxIOKAkyBDdWx0dXJhbCBzdHVkaWVzIGFuZCBkaXNjb3Vyc2UgYW5hbHlzaXM8L1Nob3J0VGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxTb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj5Xb3JsZENhdDwvU291cmNlT2ZCaWJsaW9ncmFwaGljSW5mb3JtYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdWJ0aXRsZT5BIGRpYWxvZ3VlIG9uIGxhbmd1YWdlIGFuZCBpZGVudGl0eTwvU3VidGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxUaXRsZT5DdWx0dXJhbCBzdHVkaWVzIGFuZCBkaXNjb3Vyc2UgYW5hbHlzaXM8L1RpdGxlPg0KICAgICAgICA8WWVhcj4yMDAxPC9ZZWFyPg0KICAgICAgPC9SZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgPC9FbnRyeT4NCiAgPC9FbnRyaWVzPg0KICA8VGV4dD4oQmFya2VyIGFuZCBHYWxhc2nFhHNraSAyMDAxLCBwLsKgNjYpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICA8VGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KICAgIDxUZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgICAgIDxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+DQogICAgICAgIDxOYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT4NCiAgICAgIDxUZXh0PihCYXJrZXIgYW5kIEdhbGFzacWEc2tpIDIwMDEsIHAuwqA2Nik8L1RleHQ+DQogICAgPC9UZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgPC9UZXh0VW5pdHM+DQo8L1BsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg==(Barker and Galasi?ski 2001, p. 66) The ideational function serves to convey to the hearer previously unknown content of either the speaker’s perception of the external world or his internal feelings. This function can be analysed by looking at the ‘transitivity’ of the text. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 619b4863-86cd-42ef-a167-b5ac563d863a 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(Wang 2010, p. 255) Transitivity’s two main elements ‘process’ and ‘participant’ are what make it the fundaments of representation, according to Halliday. The analysis looks at what happens or is (process) and to or by whom (participant). ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 4843e94d-2cda-4ab9-8639-808e222ef5e6 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and Galasi?ski 2001, p. 68) It can be sub-divided into six processes: Material, mental, relational, behavioural, verbal and existential ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 1a6cdbf3-24f4-439c-9742-e18a7db6bcce 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2010, p. 255)
The material process looks at an action taking place between the subject, also called actor, and direct object, also called goal, of a sentence, verbs indicating action could be e.g. run, fight, draw, eat, etc. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 3321cde9-7a5a-4f25-9a34-6a51eb11e17f PFBsYWNlaG9sZGVyPg0KICA8QWRkSW5WZXJzaW9uPjUuNy4wLjA8L0FkZEluVmVyc2lvbj4NCiAgPElkPjMzMjFjZGU5LTdhNWEtNGYyNS05YTM0LTZhNTFlYjExZTE3ZjwvSWQ+DQogIDxFbnRyaWVzPg0KICAgIDxFbnRyeT4NCiAgICAgIDxJZD45M2ZjYjFkNC1iY2ZlLTRmODYtYTk3Ni1hOWJhMDYxZGY0MmE8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgPFJlZmVyZW5jZUlkPjBmMWRmODFjLWU2N2QtNDZlZS05MDM0LWJjOTYxZjQwMWFlOTwvUmVmZXJlbmNlSWQ+DQogICAgICA8UmFuZ2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxTdGFydD4wPC9TdGFydD4NCiAgICAgICAgPExlbmd0aD4yODwvTGVuZ3RoPg0KICAgICAgPC9SYW5nZT4NCiAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2U+DQogICAgICAgIDxSZWZlcmVuY2VUeXBlSWQ+Qm9vazwvUmVmZXJlbmNlVHlwZUlkPg0KICAgICAgICA8QXV0aG9ycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEZpcnN0TmFtZT5DaHJpczwvRmlyc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExhc3ROYW1lPkJhcmtlcjwvTGFzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8U2V4Pk1hbGU8L1NleD4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1BlcnNvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEZpcnN0TmFtZT5EYXJpdXN6PC9GaXJzdE5hbWU+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TGFzdE5hbWU+R2FsYXNpxYRza2k8L0xhc3ROYW1lPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvUGVyc29uPg0KICAgICAgICA8L0F1dGhvcnM+DQogICAgICAgIDxJZD4wZjFkZjgxYy1lNjdkLTQ2ZWUtOTAzNC1iYzk2MWY0MDFhZTk8L0lkPg0KICAgICAgICA8SXNibj45NzgxNDQ2MjE5MjQ5PC9Jc2JuPg0KICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxBZGRyZXNzPmh0dHA6Ly93d3cud29ybGRjYXQub3JnL29jbGMvNzA3NzM5MTI8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5CYXJrZXIsIEdhbGFzacWEc2tpIDIwMDEgLSBDdWx0dXJhbCBzdHVkaWVzIGFuZCBkaXNjb3Vyc2UgYW5hbHlzaXMucGRmPC9BZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT5FbGVjdHJvbmljQWRkcmVzczwvTG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPEFkZHJlc3M+QmFya2VyLCBHYWxhc2nFhHNraSAyMDAxIC0gQ3VsdHVyYWwgc3R1ZGllcyBhbmQgZGlzY291cnNlIGFuYWx5c2lzICgyKS5wZGY8L0FkZHJlc3M+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPkVsZWN0cm9uaWNBZGRyZXNzPC9Mb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+DQogICAgICAgICAgPC9Mb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8TG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgICAgICA8QWRkcmVzcz5CYXJrZXIsIEdhbGFzacWEc2tpIDIwMDEgLSBDdWx0dXJhbCBzdHVkaWVzIGFuZCBkaXNjb3Vyc2UgYW5hbHlzaXMgKDMpLnBkZjwvQWRkcmVzcz4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvblR5cGU+RWxlY3Ryb25pY0FkZHJlc3M8L0xvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L0xvY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDxMb2NhdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgICAgIDxBZGRyZXNzPkJhcmtlciwgR2FsYXNpxYRza2kgMjAwMSAtIEN1bHR1cmFsIHN0dWRpZXMgYW5kIGRpc2NvdXJzZSBhbmFseXNpcyAoNCkucGRmPC9BZGRyZXNzPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPExvY2F0aW9uVHlwZT5FbGVjdHJvbmljQWRkcmVzczwvTG9jYXRpb25UeXBlPg0KICAgICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb24+DQogICAgICAgIDwvTG9jYXRpb25zPg0KICAgICAgICA8UGFnZUNvdW50QzU+PCFbQ0RBVEFbPGM+MTkzPC9jPg0KPG9zPjEgb25saW5lIHJlc291cmNlICh2aWlpLCAxOTI8L29zPg0KPHBzPjEgb25saW5lIHJlc291cmNlICh2aWlpLCAxOTI8L3BzPl1dPjwvUGFnZUNvdW50QzU+DQogICAgICAgIDxQYWdlQ291bnQ+MSBvbmxpbmUgcmVzb3VyY2UgKHZpaWksIDE5MjwvUGFnZUNvdW50Pg0KICAgICAgICA8UGxhY2VPZlB1YmxpY2F0aW9uPkxvbmRvbjsgVGhvdXNhbmQgT2FrcyBbQ2FsaWYuXTwvUGxhY2VPZlB1YmxpY2F0aW9uPg0KICAgICAgICA8UHVibGlzaGVycz4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8UHVibGlzaGVyPg0KICAgICAgICAgICAgPE5hbWU+U2FnZTwvTmFtZT4NCiAgICAgICAgICA8L1B1Ymxpc2hlcj4NCiAgICAgICAgPC9QdWJsaXNoZXJzPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2VxdWVuY2VOdW1iZXI+MTg8L1NlcXVlbmNlTnVtYmVyPg0KICAgICAgICA8U2hvcnRUaXRsZT5CYXJrZXIsIEdhbGFzacWEc2tpIDIwMDEg4oCTIEN1bHR1cmFsIHN0dWRpZXMgYW5kIGRpc2NvdXJzZSBhbmFseXNpczwvU2hvcnRUaXRsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFNvdXJjZU9mQmlibGlvZ3JhcGhpY0luZm9ybWF0aW9uPldvcmxkQ2F0PC9Tb3VyY2VPZkJpYmxpb2dyYXBoaWNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbj4NCiAgICAgICAgPFN1YnRpdGxlPkEgZGlhbG9ndWUgb24gbGFuZ3VhZ2UgYW5kIGlkZW50aXR5PC9TdWJ0aXRsZT4NCiAgICAgICAgPFRpdGxlPkN1bHR1cmFsIHN0dWRpZXMgYW5kIGRpc2NvdXJzZSBhbmFseXNpczwvVGl0bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxZZWFyPjIwMDE8L1llYXI+DQogICAgICA8L1JlZmVyZW5jZT4NCiAgICA8L0VudHJ5Pg0KICA8L0VudHJpZXM+DQogIDxUZXh0PihCYXJrZXIgYW5kIEdhbGFzacWEc2tpIDIwMDEpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICA8VGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KICAgIDxUZXh0VW5pdD4NCiAgICAgIDxJbnNlcnRQYXJhZ3JhcGhBZnRlcj5mYWxzZTwvSW5zZXJ0UGFyYWdyYXBoQWZ0ZXI+DQogICAgICA8Rm9udE5hbWUgLz4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U3R5bGU+DQogICAgICAgIDxOZXV0cmFsPnRydWU8L05ldXRyYWw+DQogICAgICAgIDxOYW1lIC8+DQogICAgICA8L0ZvbnRTdHlsZT4NCiAgICAgIDxGb250U2l6ZT4wPC9Gb250U2l6ZT4NCiAgICAgIDxUZXh0PihCYXJrZXIgYW5kIEdhbGFzacWEc2tpIDIwMDEpPC9UZXh0Pg0KICAgIDwvVGV4dFVuaXQ+DQogIDwvVGV4dFVuaXRzPg0KPC9QbGFjZWhvbGRlcj4=(Barker and Galasi?ski 2001, p. 68) An example would be ‘David (actor) fights (material) Goliath (goal)’.

Mental processes center around a ‘senser’ and a ‘phenomenon’, they can be indicated by verbs like feel, think, imagine, see, like, believe etc. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 4342b7b3-4c3b-48af-b81e-f8378c4034c5 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(Barker and Galasi?ski 2001, p. 68) An example would be ‘Joey (senser) feels (mental) motivated (phenomenon)’.

The relational process establishes a relation between two entities called the ‘identified’ and the ‘identifier’ or assigns an attribute to an object, thus they can be attributive or identifying ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 0ec9b3e6-8686-43c5-9f11-3f4fa41ed90c 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(Wang 2010, p. 255) ‘Mount Everest is high (attribute)’ would classify as an attributive process, whereas ‘Ria’s (identified) best friend is a panda (identifier)’ would be an identifying process.

A behavioural process explains the behaviour of its participant, called behaver. These processes are usually characterized by having only one participant and verbs such as breathing, smiling, tasting, laughing, etc. Wang (2010) points out that this process can sometimes be mistaken for a material process when they have more than one participant (p. 255), e.g. ‘Mario smiles at me’ – in this case Mario could be the actor as well as the behaver.
Verbal processes are the action of exchanging information by verbal communication, e.g. say, pray, scream, describe, etc. The persons who communicate are the ‘sayers’ and the persons who receive the information are the ‘target’. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 7b66a9d0-1f58-41be-9b59-e2b1cafb1669 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(Barker and Galasi?ski 2001, p. 68) An example would be ‘The President (sayer) screams at the reporters (target)’.

The existential processes describe something that is in existence or happening ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER b1862c79-2999-4f54-9925-22956525b61a 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(Barker and Galasi?ski 2001, p. 68), such as ‘There is a tree on the road’.

The interpersonal function looks at how language is used to express relationships between people or groups via the mood and modality of a given text. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 54ba2ef3-4f7a-40ec-a698-19d2d2f555d7 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(Barker and Galasi?ski 2001, p. 72)
The mood of a text can be understood as being able to present itself through the grammatical structure of a sentence in three different ways: as imperative, declarative or interrogative. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER bcf72a21-f580-462d-8ad6-a13b2a399aaa 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(Barker and Galasi?ski 2001, p. 72) A heavily imperative text can therefore be seen to come from a position of power, e.g. when a boss talks to his employee about things that still need to get done before the weekend.
The modality of a text is measured by the use of modal verbs within it. In her work, Wang (2010) makes use of a table by Zhang Guoling (2006) differentiating modal verbs into low, median and high politeness. (p. 259). ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 81c30777-c5fd-4630-be21-da872405dac8 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Barker and Galasi?ski (2001) point out that modality reveals how the speaker feels towards what he says, his relationship with the truth. (p. 74)
The textual function of the text is to produce a coherent string of sentences that make sense to the audience. This can be examined by looking at the cohesion and coherence, the “theme-rheme structure” and the presentation of information. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 89f29e80-ab43-4dac-9078-c5ec1481f1d6 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(Barker and Galasi?ski 2001, p. 75)
While the textual function (as a subcategory of the textual analysis) as well as the mood interpersonal function are certainly important characteristics of the text, the analysis of this paper regarding the textual level of the speeches will focus on the the ideational and interpersonal functionstransitivity analysis based on Halliday’s systemic functional grammar. The ideational function can describe well how Morales perceives the external world, and thereby the situation the country is in and the status of marginalized groups, as well as his internal feelings towards these issues. The modality analysis of the interpersonal function then reveals the intensity with which he feels about them. By analysing the use of modal verbs, we can understand the intentions Morales has for his administration. To not only analyse the text but situate it in the context of its creation, the discursive and social practice the text is situated in at the time will be examined (see Figure 1.1).

The discursive practice requires us to analyse the intertextuality or interdiscursivity of the text at hand. There is a disparity of opinion in academic circles as to whether intertextuality is a narrower analysis under the umbrella term interdiscursivity, whether one should replace the other, or whether they are actually distinct concepts. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER d7e85f2a-0ef5-43b1-9864-8795451ca527 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(Prentice and Barker 2017, p. 4) Interdiscursivity in this context refers to the use of other discourses within this discourse. If they are combined in new, unexpected ways they can be a major driving force for change. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 4ad85d00-f9c2-45ea-a803-89fafb9411e1 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(Jørgensen and Phillips 2002, p. 73) The meaning of a text is created, not in isolation, but by its relation and interaction with other texts. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 12da08c3-b658-4700-b160-9c89820e3918 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and Barker 2017, p. 1) “Intertextuality therefore refers to the condition whereby all communicative events draw on earlier events.” ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 167a8a15-7061-407c-b641-0bbde3383f96 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(Jørgensen and Phillips 2002, p. 73, my italics) The examination of these two features allows the researcher to understand the tools the producer of the text drew on to construct an identity. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER d37bcf9d-8147-43a3-a147-42b9870bf6d5 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(Koller 2012, p. 25) For the purposes of this thesis, intertextuality will be examined by looking at the use of quotations and references to other people or their utterances by Morales. This will provide us with an outcome that can help us analyse what influences he considers important for Bolivian politics.

The social practice looks at the societal circumstances at the time of production of the text. It takes into account the institutional practices that were in place and those that were created. The creation of institutions in the social constructionist sense is explained in Chapter 2.2.
Data collectionThe data that will be analysed in this paper was collected from a variety of sources due to the general lack of access to official government sources that date back before 2013. The Ministry of Communication (http://www.comunicacion.gob.bo/?q=discursos) has a variety of official presidential discourses available, ranging from speeches at the opening of a social foundation to the victory speech after the presidential election in 2014. Since this paper sets out to analyse speeches ranging from 2006 to 2014 to better be able to analyse the historical development of Evo Morales discourse on indigenous identity, other sources to obtain the speeches had to be considered. The speech from 2006 can be found on the webpage of the Argentinian newspaper ‘Pagina 12’ and the 2009 speech is available on the webpage of ‘Asamblea de apoyo a Bolivia’ (Assembly of support for Bolivia) which is a collective of different organizations who came together from different countries to declare their support for the government of Evo Morales.
As this paper examines the influence his political representations had on the indigenous identity in Bolivia, speeches at the UN and other foreign meetings will be disregarded because the extent to which they might have been consumed in Bolivia is seen as limited. With the official and most used language in Bolivia being Spanish, the original language of the speeches is also Spanish. Due to time constraints, the analysis of the speeches, meaning the coding will be conducted in its original Spanish, specific sentences that are then introduced into the main body of text will however be translate by the author of this paper. The original texts of the speeches can be found in the appendix in chronological order. Each line has been given a number to make later reference to specific sentences easier. These references are indicated by the word ‘line’.
Verbal representation (speeches)Visual representation (whipala, ceremonial location, dress)Interviews?Data AnalysisTextual analysis – TransitivityThe textual analysis us to analyse the transitivity as well as the modality to be able to mTransitivityTo conduct the textual analysis, the text in the appendix was coded using Halliday’s functional systemic grammar six process categories. Zhang and Zhao (2017) specify Halliday’s requirements to only include finite clauses (adverbial clauses, object clauses, non-defining relative clauses) and to exclude non-finite clauses (to-infinitive clauses, present and past participle clauses) as well as embedded clauses (subject clauses, predicative clauses, appositive clauses and defining relative clauses). 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Below is a table to show the quantitative results in total and per speech:
Process Material Mental Relational Behavioural Verbal Existential Total
# total 237 57 87 14 57 24 476
% total 49,79% 11,97% 18,32% 2,94% 11,97% 5,04% 100%
# speech 1 48 16 33 5 14 2 118
% speech 1 40,68% 13,56% 27,97% 4,24% 11,86% 1,69% 100%
# speech 2 124 27 33 5 27 15 231
% speech 2 53,68% 11,69% 14,29% 2,16% 11,69% 6,49% 100%
# speech 3 65 14 21 4 16 7 127
% speech 3 51,18% 11,02% 16,54% 3,15% 12,60% 5,51% 100%
Table 1 Transitivity analysis of all three speeches
A total of 476 ranking clauses including all six process types were found in the speeches. In all speeches we can see a clear domination of the material process (overall average 49,79%), followed by the relational process (overall average 18,32%), the mental and verbal process were represented in equal measure (overall average 11,97%), followed by the existential process with an overall average of 5,04% and lastly the behavioural process with an overall average of 2.94%.
Within the different speeches we can see a difference between the first and the second and third speech. Where the first speech presents a 40,68% use of the material process (which is still the dominating clause), it also shows a high use of the relational process (much higher than the overall average at 27.97%). The second and third speech on the other hand show a higher than average use of the material process (speech 2: 53,68% and speech 3: 51,18%) with a lower than average use of the relational process (speech 2: 14,29% and speech 3: 16,54%).

For this it is important to know that he refers to the listeners in two distinct ways – in many passages he calls them ‘hermanos y hermanas’ (e.g. see appendix lines 1, 3, 18, 25, 36, 48, 63, etc.) which would translate as ‘brothers and sisters’ or comrade thereby leaving it open to definition by the listener of whether they identity as his brother/sister/comrade via any of the possible meanings (indigenous, union member, coca grower, peasant), in other passages he names specific indigenous groups (e.g. Aymara, Quechua and Guaraní among others, see appendix lines 2, 32, 33, 49, etc.). He sometimes puts both uses together, thereby creating an association between indigenous groups being referred to as his brothers/sisters/comrades. Describe how this paper will deal with the issue.

Before we go into more detail on the different process types it should be clarified that this paper will only look at the following three processes (material, relational and mental) due to space constraints. The rather low representation of the behavioural and existential process allows us to neglect them without losing the ability to answer the research question. The slightly higher percentage of verbal processes resulted from the frequent use of ‘quiero decirles’ (I want to tell you) or expressions of a similar nature (28 in total) leaving us with 6,09% of verbal processes after deducting them. What can be said at this point is that his frequent use of ‘I want to tell you’ shows to the people that he has information to share that they might not have had before. It can draw their attention, indicating that he has something important to impart. The other times a verbal process was used to recall a conversation either from the recent past or the far past, in order to respond to that conversation in the speech (e.g. line 158 where he recalls the words that sentenced Tupac Katari to death, or line 245 where he repeats the concerns people had about the new constitution).

Speech at Tiahuanacu 2006In this chapter we will analyse the transitivity of the 2006 speech at Tiahuanacu in more detail, with a special focus on how he presents indigenous people. The ceremony at Tiahuanacu consisted, among other things, of a priestly ritual that saw him receive the baston de mando (ceremonial staff) from Aymaran priests. ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 823d60e4-84b2-4c38-8d84-4d3395078c35 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(Kohl 2010, p. 107) It can be assumed that this being his first official speech as president, he wants to create a connection between himself and the people he is going to represent (which are not only the people who voted for him, but all Bolivian people). At the same time, a lot of international press and representatives were present at the ceremony, thus giving him the opportunity to not only talk to the Bolivian people but also a wider, international audience.
Process Material Mental Relational Behavioural Verbal Existential Total
# speech 1 48 16 33 5 14 2 118
% speech 1 40,68% 13,56% 27,97% 4,24% 11,86% 1,69% 100%
Table 2 Transitivity analysis of the speech at Tiahuanacu 2006
The numbers show us that while the material process clearly dominated this speech as well, the difference between the material and relational process is much smaller than for the other two speeches. At continuation we will examine the material, relational and mental processes.
Material processes
The following quotes from the original speech were chosen to illustrate the material processes Morales uses to describe what has happened, is going to happen and the action he/his administration will take. The number at the start shows the line in which it can be found in the appendix.
8-9: … with the strength of the people, with the unity of the people, we will end the colonial state and the neoliberal model
15: … we need the strength of the people to twist the hand of the empire.

39-40:… here the political instrument put two powers in balance.
41-43: … the conscience won the elections and now the conscience of the people will change our history, brothers and sisters.

48-50: … with your help, brothers and sisters, Quechuas, Aymaras, Guaraníes, we want to show to govern with honesty, with responsibility to change the economic situation of the Bolivian people.
56-57:… the original indigenous peoples claim to re-found Bolivia through the Constituent Assembly.

62: … we will put the Constituent Assembly in place to end the colonial state
94-96: … united and organized, we will change economic politics that do not change the economic situation of the national majorities.
100: This has to stop, and we are starting here together.
From the examples we can see that Morales engages his audience and supporters by saying ‘with the strength of the people’, ‘with your help’, ‘united and organized’ and by directly following these words with action words, such as ‘change’, ‘twist’ or ‘end’ he makes the listeners active participants in their political destiny. At the same time, he actively lays out the plan of his government for the country and the future of the people.
The example from lines 48-50 shows that his understanding of who can rule the country is clearly represented by the indigenous people, because they can show how to govern with honesty.
Relational process
Through relational processes the speaker assigns attributes to people or things or identifies them as something else. This is used to make the internal feelings of the speaker relatable for the audience.

4-5: … today is a new year for the original peoples of the world, a new life.

22-24: The triumph of the 18th of December is not the triumph of Evo Morales, it is the triumph of all Bolivians, it is the triumph of democracy, it is the triumph, as an exception, of the democratic and cultural revolution in Bolivia.
32-34: .,.. the Aymaras, Quechuas, Mojeños, Chapacos, Vallunos, Chiquitanos, Yuracarés, Chipayas, Muratos peoples are the absolute owners of this enormous land.
69: … we are not alone in the world
78-79: The Aymaras and Quechuas, we are not spiteful
96-98: … the capital is few hands in no solution for humanity; the concentration of capital in few hands is no solution for the poor of the world.
119-120: … we poor also have a right to govern ourselves, and in Bolivia we indigenous peoples also have a right to be president
121-122: … aymaras, quechuas, mojeños we are president, not only Evo is president.
Morales connotes the events around and after his election with positive meanings by saying ‘a new year for the original people’, ‘the triumph of democracy’ and ‘we are president’ thereby giving the audience the feeling that what is to come will be good.
He also assigns certain attributes to the indigenous people by indicating who they are, what they own and what their rights are. These, from the examples, are positive attributes and serve to position the indigenous people as equal (line 120: ‘we … also have a right …’) to the rest of the people. A point to note is that, as an ethnic Aymaran himself, in lines 78-79 and 121-122 he refers to all indigenous people when he says ‘we’ which necessarily includes him in the equation, indicating that he sees all the indigenous groups in Bolivia as one and the same and also as represented by him.
Mental process
A mental process is used to express what the speaker feels inside, thinks of the external world and what he desires.
27-28: … I feel proud as an Aymaran …
28-30: … brothers from the middle class, the profesional class, intellectuals and businessmen, you should also be proud of these indigenous original peoples.

71: … we should not feel alone.

73:… we want unity
101-102: … we want to continue advancing, advancing to liberate our Bolivia, to liberate our America …
In this first speech as president, with the international audience watching, he took the opportunity to express what he as president wants, but also what the Bolivian people want.
He also uses the opportunity to call on all other people in Bolivia who are not indigenous to tell me that they should also feel proud of what their indigenous brothers have achieved.

Conclusion
In the first speech we are analysing, Morales uses a rather high percentage of relational processes in his speech, presumably to establish the relation he sees between two entities as something objective. As Zhang and Zhao (2017) put it “these processes elaborate the relationship between ideals and speaker’s beliefs which can reach their aim of making the reasoning naturally and unconsciously accepted by the audience”. 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It also gave him the chance to portray indigenous people, who he refers to throughout his speech, from his point of view. This, as we have seen, sees indigenous people as capable (‘Quechuas, Aymaras, Guaraníes, we want to show to govern with honesty, with responsibility’), equal (‘in Bolivia we indigenous peoples also have a right to be president’) and someone to be proud of (‘I feel proud as an Aymaran’ but more importantly ‘you should also be proud of these indigenous original peoples’).

Speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009This speech was given when the new political constitution (CPE) was signed into law at a little more than three years into Evo Morales’s presidency. This constitution among other things that are mentioned in his speech below, also restricts the number of re-elections to one, meaning that a president can only serve a total of two terms.
Process Material Mental Relational Behavioural Verbal Existential Total
# speech 2 124 27 33 5 27 15 231
% speech 2 53,68% 11,69% 14,29% 2,16% 11,69% 6,49% 100%
Table 3 Transitivity analysis of the speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009
This speech is the longest of the ones examined and presents high counts of material processes. This could be explained by the circumstances of the speech since he describes the achievements of the Bolivian people in passing this new constitution. At continuation we will examine the material, relational and mental process in more detail.
Material process
Below are examples from the speech that illustrate the material processes used.
136: The Bolivian people never decided their destiny.

142: … the neoliberals agreed the reforms behind closed doors …
169-170: … the liberating scream was born in 1781
167-169:… how they tried to scare, frighten, intimidate, punish the rebellion of the indigenous peoples who fought for liberation, who fought for their territory, who fought for their identity
198-199:… so that no other government can privatize and hand over these natural resources to the transnationals.

218-220: The indigenous peasant government at the head of the CSUTCB, of course at the head of the COB, and all the social forces recovered the democracy that unfortunately the external agents used with the different governments to continue oppressing the Bolivian people.
226-227: … more than two thirds of the Bolivian people supported this democratic cultural revolution
250-252:… we have faced so many slanders, so many lies, so many humiliations to reach this historic day, so I want to tell you that despite these adversities, despite these humiliations, we have arrived at this Bolivian CPE.

257-259: This new Bolivian CPE guarantees the equality of opportunity for people from the countryside and the city, it guarantees fundamentally, brothers and sisters, unity, equality and dignity for all Bolivian people.

261-263: … the wisdom of our peoples, of our social forces, has made it possible to identify, resist and defeat the external agents, defeat North American/US imperialism.
272-273: … for the first time in the new CPE the ama sua, ama llulla and ama k’ella are incorporated.
282: … we have to decolonize this colonial state …
299-301:… in this new Bolivian CPE all the languages of the original peoples are recognized, also, the Spanish language, castellano as we call it, is recognized
304-305: Here we will start from the Palace …
360-361: … as long as I am alive, as long as destiny accompanies me, we will go on working for the unity, the equality and the dignity.
371-373:… let’s work, as always, with all our social forces, with our state institutions, for that reason sisters and brothers, today, we proclaim the Plurinational State, from the city of El Alto, from Bolivia to the world.

In this speech Morales ascribes bad actions to the others by using ‘they’, ‘the neoliberals’ or ‘other government’ when talking about actions that restricted the rights and chances of ‘his people’. Two major achievements regarding indigenous people that he highlights by using material processes in his speech are the incorporation of the Incan moral system (‘ama sua’, ‘ama llulla’ and ‘ama k’ella’) as a constitutional part of Bolivia, as well as the constitutionalizing of all the indigenous languages as official languages beside Spanish. This move puts them on equal footing with Spanish – ‘the language of the colonizers’ – and requires all Bolivians to learn an indigenous language (302-303: ‘a Bolivian is obliged to slowly learn to speak an indigenous language’). The use of material processes here highlights the proactive stance of his government on indigenous issues and their push to bring them to the forefront of Bolivian society.
He continuously reminds the audience that everything that is changing was changed democratically, thereby giving the newly proclaimed Plurinational State of Bolivia legitimacy.
Relational Process
At continuation are the examples of relational processes that occurred in the examined speech.
129-131:… today, February 7, 2009, is a historic event, an unprecedented event, unique for Bolivia and Latin America …
146-147:In Bolivian history, it is the indigenous – peasant movement, after so many years, sisters and brothers, that begins first in the election of the constituents …
179-180:… and here we are reunited to guarantee the second independence, the real liberation of the Bolivian people.
200:… their fight has not been in vain …
271-272:… something ethical that has been recuperated is the law that was left to us by our ancestors
280-282:… nepotism, state bureaucracy and above all corruption has been the right of the colonial state …
287-288:These corrupt people from the past have no moral, no authority …
297-298:… the basic services, water, light, telephone, are a human right and will therefore not be private business but public service.

301: … nobody is excluded.
310-311:… we are a peaceful country …
350-351:Here we have nothing to hide, it is transparency, brothers and sisters, the conscience of the Bolivian people …
366:… it is impressive what we are doing …
There are several points he talks about in this speech’s relational processes. He shows that he thinks their accomplishments are extraordinary (‘historic event’, unprecedented event’, ‘impressive’), that together they achieved what their ancestors had been fighting for for a long time. He also wants to make sure that all Bolivian people know, that ‘nobody is excluded’.
Mental Process
150-151:… and we cannot forget the rebellion of the indigenous movement …
172: … we should never forget this quartering …
240: … imagine, with similar lies they wanted to deceive them …
309-310:You know, the Bolivian people know the advances we have made with this new Bolivian CEP
356-358:… and the Bolivian people know, some groups tried to get me out of the Palace, and you know, some groups tried to kill me.
These quotes from the speech represent different levels of mental processes. We can distinguish between two parts. The part where he reminds people of the past to remind them that what they have been fighting for is their right and has been fought for for a long time. And the part where he appeals to the knowledge of the Bolivian people by telling them something they already know (according to him). This makes his listeners feel smart and confirmed in what they were thinking.

Conclusion
With respect to the indigenous component of this speech we see a little less than in the first speech, which could be explained by the fact that he has already been in office for three years and the people know his opinion on it. Nonetheless, he does mention the fight of the indigenous people for independence and ‘real liberation’.

Speech after electoral victory 2014This speech was given on the day of the presidential election in 2014 after the polling stations had been closed. This election marks the third Morales is running for president in. In this speech we will analyse the material and relational processes because they represent the majority of all processes in the speech
Process Material Mental Relational Behavioural Verbal Existential Total
# speech 3 65 14 21 4 16 7 127
% speech 3 51,18% 11,02% 16,54% 3,15% 12,60% 5,51% 100%
Table 4 Transitivity analysis of the electoral victory speech 2014
Material process
379-381:We continue to grow, we have reviewed the preliminary data, made known from eight o’clock at night; in all the departments we have grown, in eight departments we have already officially won the elections.
388-389:… that it has been ratified again democratically that in Bolivia there is no “half-moon”, but “full moon”.
392:… and again, with more than 60% the nationalization wins.
405-406:… and this policy has won, sisters and brothers
412-413:… and this vote has won, and we will guarantee that Bolivia will be the energy centre of South America.
422-423:”To govern obeying the people”, is what we do every time.

440-441:In these national elections, dignity, unity and sovereignty of the Bolivian people won.

458-459:… it is the seventh triumph, three we won with more than 50% and four times we won with more than 60%.
465-466:… everybody prayed for the process, they prayed for Bolivia, for unity.

475-476:… to our opponents, let’s not make confrontation, come, let’s work together with them for Bolivia
This speech is characterized by Morales’s emphasis on winning, in the past as well as on that day. The votes had not been completely counted, yet he already declared this election a win, and compared it to how the same politics that won in the past, won again. He focuses on the percentage with which they won the elections in the past and now, and points out that (‘again’) it was decided democratically that Bolivia is united (‘there is no ‘half-moon’) and his politics (‘nationalization’) are what the people want.

He also calls upon his opponents to work together for the good of the Bolivian people, thereby portraying himself as open to cooperation, because he wants the people to see that all he has in mind is the good of the country.
Relational Process
382:… the fight is vote for vote …
385-386:… and this triumph is the triumph of the anti-colonialists and anti-imperialists, it is of the Bolivia people.

393-396:… your effort, …, has not been in vain.
420-421:… this effort, this commitment, this reflection that our social movements do will not be in vain
451-452:… we are not alone here in La Paz …
462:This is a way of liberating ourselves democratically …
466:… your prayers, your blessings have not been in vain …
Here he connects his way of thinking of the Bolivian people (‘anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist’) with the triumph of the election. He often repeats that all they have worked for has not been in vain, which could be a sign that he feels the need to have to reassure his audience of the success of his government. But also wants to assure his followers that supporting him in this election was successful because he won (lines 466ff).
Mental Process
403:… you will remember …
427:… we should also remember …
465-466:… I am convinced that everybody prayed for the process, they prayed for Bolivia, for unity.

477:You know …
This speech does not present many mental processes, nonetheless, the ones that are used, are employed to make people remember, either something that was done to them, or achieved by them.
Conclusion
In this speech, in comparison, he uses a lot less references to specific indigenous groups (none naming Aymara, Quechua or Guaraní and only one mention of the word indigenous when he speaks of the united peoples of Bolivia; line 460). He indirectly refers to them when he mentions people with an anti-colonial mindset. This speech was given eight years after he was first elected president, since then he has established his government and with them possibly the idea of indigenous people as capable and equal. This could explain why his focus is less on naming them individually, but instead incorporating them into the Bolivian people. This also has the benefit of projecting unity of the country through his choice of words, because he shows that not one specific group needs mention in his speeches.
SummaryLooking at the transitivity analysis of the three speeches examined above, we can summarize that his use of words, whether they are present in material, relational or mental processes, with reference to indigenous people decreased from the first to the third speech. While in the first speech he still used a higher percentage of relational processes, these decreased over the next 8 years, whereas the percentage of material processes rose. We can also see a shift in focus of his speeches. The first speech was mostly about the achievement of the social, peasant, indigenous movements in overthrowing the colonial rule and the actions of the new government to make sure that imperialism does not return. The second speech does take a similar tone, most likely because the speech was given after the new constitution (which guarantees more rights for indigenous people) was signed into law. This constitution could be seen as a finalizing touch of what he said the people wanted in the first speech. The third speech, held in 2014, shows a shift towards a politic less focused on indigenous people, or in general a specific group of people and we start seeing a clearer focus on his anti-colonial, anti-imperialist politics.
There are several reasons that could explain this, which will not be further explored at this point but can flow into the social analysis conducted later in this paper.

ModalitySpeech at Tiahuanacu 2006Speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009Speech after electoral victory 2014Discursive analysis – IntertextualityIn this Chapter we will explore the references Morales makes to other texts within each speech separately. In the societal analysis afterwards, this will help us to focus in on the societal circumstances that were most prevalent at the time of the speech. Speech at Tiahuanacu 2006In this speech, we can find references to other events, occurrences and people that Morales draws on. When it comes to people, Morales mentions them by name, however in the case of Felipe Quispe (line 74) without much more reference to what they he has done, rather calling on him to cooperate with him to move Bolivia forward. Quispe is an indigenous Aymaran politician, same as Morales and ran against him in the 2005 election. The naming of Quispe as a separate entity in the speech (other leaders in this sentence are simply addressed as leaders (dirigentes)) could mean that Morales feels a certain connection because of their indigeneity and wants to emphasise that indigenous people have to work together to ‘finally escape the colonial and neoliberal state’. Morales also calls on Túpac Katari and Che Guevara by saying that the fight they started will be continued and completed by them. He therefore establishes a connection between what was done in the past by 1) an indigenous revolutionary and 2) a Marxist one. This leaves us with the conclusion that Morales sees himself as a mix of the two, leading Bolivia into a Marxist indigenous era. Morales also references two historic events by name, again without elaborating on them much further. He remembers the campaign called 500 years of indigenous resistance that was started in 1991/2 by indigenous leaders to remember the struggle of indigenous people against the colonial powers ever since Columbus discovered America. The campaign is an America-wide campaign.Later he compares the place where he is giving his speech, Tiahuanacu and the audience there to the Plaza de la Revolución (Revolution Square) in Cuba (line 109). This square obtained its relevance during the Cuban Revolution between 1953 and 1959 in which Fidel and Raul Castro fought together with Che Guevara against the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista. The Square is a place where many large political speeches were delivered, among others by Fidel Castro. Morales continues by saying that this is the first time such a large concentration of people ever appeared in Bolivia and goes on to thank his supporters, especially in the name of the indigenous peoples.Invoking the Cuban revolution or Fidel Castro’s government as a comparison with his achievements could mean that he sees the Cuban model as a success and what has happened in Cuba 50 years ago and was still going on till that day can be what Bolivia is looking forward to. This first time of such a large congregation ‘is only the beginning’. Speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009Túpac Katari has the most prominent role in this speech, as Morales draws on him twice during his speech. First, he recites the death sentence (lines 158-165) that was passed down on Katari in 1781 after the failed siege of La Paz, led by him and his sister. The original wording, as presented by Morales describes in detail how Katari will be executed (quartered by drawing). Instead of simply saying that Katari should be remembered as a hero (as he does with the other people he names), he chose his death sentence as an example of how the government used ‘scare tactics’ to keep the indigenous population suppressed and to crush their rebellion (lines 167-171). For him, the liberating scream (grito liberatorio) was born the day of Katari’s death in 1781. The second time he names Katari, he quotes his final words “I die, but I will return converted into millions” (line 341). Morales then refers to the supporters of his government, of his party as being the millions, thereby instilling the spirit of a national, indigenous hero in his followers and equating their successes with finishing Katari’s struggle and possibly being the ‘ones who revenge his death’. He goes on to name several other leaders who fought for the liberation of Bolivia (Moto Méndez, Juana Azurduy de Padilla, Sebastián Pagador, the brothers Lanza – lines 175-176). Interestingly he only mentions Sebastián Pagador by name without referring to his circumstances of death. Pagador was a criollo leader of the revolution 10 de Febrero in Oruro, Bolivia against the Spaniards. According to various sources ADDIN CITAVI.PLACEHOLDER 559fe54e-3420-45e9-bbbc-ee66c6d7cf88 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2013; La Patria 2014; La Razon 2014) he died at the hands of indigenous fighters three days after the revolution. Pagador is considered a national hero and therefore features in Morales’s speech, however his intentional non-mention of Pagador’s death could be seen as Morales not wanting the audience to associate indigenous people with the death of a national hero. Morales also uses Quechua words in his speech to 1) refer to specific principles (line 273) and 2) at the end of the speech to wish Bolivia success (line 376). The first instance points to the incorporation of Incan principles in the new constitution, which shows that the country, besides being run on the ‘traditional’ political principles, also relies on indigenous moral principles, thus combining the established political system with Andean values. He finishes his speech by using the Quechua-Aymara idiom Jallalla (line 376) which represents the concepts of hope, celebration and faith, meaning that the dreams will be taken to God, the Pachamama or the universe and with intense work on the part of the people, it will be realized. Jallalla sovereign Bolivia therefore means that with the help of God and because of their intense work, there will be a sovereign Bolivia.Speech after electoral victory 2014In this speech we can find references to a Mexican revolutionary called ‘Subcomandante Marcos’ who is the leader of the Mexican leftist Zapatista Army, mostly comprised of indigenous people, though he himself is not one. He is quoted to have said ‘to govern obeying the people’ (line 423) which as Morales points out, is exactly what he does. This goes with his earlier reference that in Bolivia there is only a ‘full moon’ (line 389), meaning that there are no autonomy aspirations in the lowland departments, because the people in the election voted for the MAS (winning in 8 of 9 departments (lines 380-381)) thus he is only obeying the people’s wishes.Morales also refers to two political leaders, Fidel Castro and Hugo Chavez, who he dedicates his triumph as an anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist to (lines 445-447). ConclusionMorales uses few to no indirect references to utterances by other people, past or present. When he refers to an occurrence in the past he always reminds his audience of the whole story and points out the conclusions of his comparisons. When he invokes other people’s names, these people are not necessarily all from Bolivia, but are somehow connected with the country, either because they fought for the country or they/their country represents the same ideology as him. Here we can see an evolution from the first to the third speech. While in the first he does name Che Guevara and makes references to the Cuban revolution, most of his references in the first and second speech are regarding indigenous people, their struggles and his achievements. In the third one he names Fidel Castro and Hugo Chavez by name, people who had nothing to do with the destiny of Bolivia but simply lead their country in a way he maybe wants to lead Bolivia. The historic references become less common from the first to the third speech that were analysed. Social analysis
Speech at Tiahuanacu 2006Speech at the signing of the new constitution 2009Speech after electoral victory 2014ConclusionConclusionLimitationsThis work draws from many different theories to build a framework under which the critical discourse analysis will be applied. Due to space and time constraints the depth to which the theories in this paper are elaborated is not very extensive. It covers the most important notions; however, many papers and books have been written on e.g. identity alone. This paper therefore does not claim to represent the theories in their entirety or complexity, but they merely serve to provide the reader with an overview of the salient features of the fundamental concepts.
Furthermore, as elaborated already under 3.4 Data Collection, certain limitations apply to the availability of original sources for analysis. These were circumvented by accessing other sources, such as newspapers. Nonetheless, restrictions on data for analytical comparison from speeches prior to 2013 did apply.

Critical reflectionFuture research
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In </Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>false</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Italic>true</Italic><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>La Razon</Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>true</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Neutral>true</Neutral><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>, 2/10/2014. Available online at http://www.la-razon.com/index.php?_url=/suplementos/financiero/Sebastian-Pagador-caudillo-aporte-estudiado_0_1996000427.html, checked on 8/18/2018.</Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>false</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Neutral>true</Neutral><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>Postero, Nancy (2010): Morales's MAS Government. Building Indigenous Popular Hegemony in Bolivia. 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Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.</Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>true</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Neutral>true</Neutral><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>Prentice, Michael; Barker, Meghanne (2017): Intertextuality and Interdiscursivity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available online at https://www.academia.edu/33194620/Intertextuality_and_Interdiscursivity, checked on 8/17/2018.</Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>false</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Neutral>true</Neutral><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>Wang, Junling (2010): A Critical Discourse Analysis of Barack Obama’s Speeches. In </Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>false</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Italic>true</Italic><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>JLTR </Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>true</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Neutral>true</Neutral><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>1 (3). DOI: 10.4304/jltr.1.3.254-261.</Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>true</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Neutral>true</Neutral><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>Wendt, Alexander (1999): Social theory of international politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge studies in international relations, 67).</Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>false</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Neutral>true</Neutral><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>Yashar, Deborah J. (1998): Contesting Citizenship. Indigenous Movements and Democracy in Latin America. In </Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>false</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Italic>true</Italic><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>Comparative Politics </Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>true</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Neutral>true</Neutral><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>31 (1), pp. 23–42. DOI: 10.2307/422104.</Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>false</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Neutral>true</Neutral><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Mengyan (2017): A Transitivity Analysis of American President Donald J. Trump’s Inaugural Address. In </Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>false</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Italic>true</Italic><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences </Text></TextUnit><TextUnit><InsertParagraphAfter>false</InsertParagraphAfter><FontName /><FontStyle><Neutral>true</Neutral><Name /></FontStyle><FontSize>0</FontSize><Text>5 (5), pp. 31–43. Available online at https://www.ijlass.org/data/frontImages/gallery/Vol._5_No._5/5._31-43.pdf, checked on 8/14/2018.</Text></TextUnit></TextUnits></Citation></Citations></BibliographyCitation></Bibliography>Publication bibliography
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AppendixThe transcripts or written words of Evo Morales’s speeches from 2006, 2009 and 2014 are displayed at continuation in chronological order. The analysis of the ideational functions has been completed using colour coding for easy distinction in the overview. Additionally, each have been assigned the following abbreviations: material (MA), mental (ME), relational (RE), behavioural (BE), verbal (VE) and existential (EX)The original text does not include the above abbreviations, these were simply added for easier understanding of the analysis conducted.

Evo Morales|s speech at Tiahuanacu the night before his inauguration
Source: https://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/especiales/18-62330-2006-01-30.htmlDate: 21st January 2006
Muchísimas gracias por todo el apoyo que me dieron en la campaña, hermanas y hermanos, los aymaras, los quechuas, los mojeños.

Les decía (VE), hermanas y hermanos de las provincias del departamento de La Paz, de los departamentos de Bolivia, de los países de Latinoamérica y de todo el mundo, hoy día empieza (RE) un nuevo año para los pueblos originarios del mundo, una nueva vida en que buscamos (MA) igualdad y justicia, una nueva era, un nuevo milenio para todos los pueblos del mundo, desde acá Tiahuanacu, desde acá La Paz, Bolivia.

Muy emocionado, convencido que sólo con la fuerza del pueblo, con la unidad del pueblo vamos a acabar (MA) con el estado colonial y con el modelo neoliberal.Este compromiso, en lo más sagrado de Tiahuanacu, este compromiso para defender a los bolivianos, para defender al pueblo indígena originaria, no solamente de Bolivia, como anoche nos dieron (BE) la tarea, defender a los pueblos indígenas de América, antes llamada Abayala.

Pero los resultados, el apoyo de todos ustedes, quiero decirles (VE) un compromiso serio y responsable, no de Evo Morales, sino por todos los bolivianos, por todos los latinoamericanos, necesitamos (MA) la fuerza del pueblo para doblar la mano al imperio.Pero también quiero decirles (VE), con mucho respeto a nuestras autoridades originarias, a nuestras organizaciones, a nuestros amautas, a controlarme, si no puedo avanzar (MA) empújenme (MA) ustedes, hermanas y hermanos.

A corregirme permanentemente, es (RE) posible que pueda equivocarme, puedo equivocarme (RE), podemos equivocarnos (RE), pero jamás traicionar (MA) la lucha del pueblo boliviano y la lucha de la liberación de los pueblos de Latinoamérica.

El triunfo del 18 de diciembre no es (RE) el triunfo de Evo Morales, es (RE) el triunfo de todos los bolivianos, es (RE) el triunfo de la democracia, es (RE) el triunfo, como una excepción, de una revolución democrática y cultural en Bolivia.

Pero también quiero decirles (VE), muchos hermanos profesionales, intelectuales, clase media, se incorporaron (MA) al instrumento político de la liberación, hoy instrumento político del pueblo.

Quiero decirles (VE) que yo, de esa gente, de esos profesionales intelectuales de la clase media me siento (ME) orgulloso como aymara, pero también les pido (VE) a los hermanos de la clase media, de la clase profesional, intelectual, empresarial, que ustedes también deben sentirse (ME) orgullosos de estos pueblos indígenas originarios.

Buscar una unidad de todos los sectores, respetando la diversidad, respetando lo diferente que somos, todos tenemos (RE) derecho a la vida, pero si hablamos (VE) de Bolivia los pueblos aymaras, quechuas, mojeños, chapacos, vallunos, chiquitanos, yuracarés, chipayas, muratos son (RE) dueños absolutos de esta enorme tierra, y a sus dueños, las promesas hay que recordarlas (ME) para recordar el problema económico social de nuestra Bolivia.

Hermanas y hermanos, sorprendido de esta gran concentración tan voluntaria, tan espontánea. Ni Evo ni Alvaro no han puesto (MA) ni un boliviano para que la gente pueda concentrarse (MA), y ésta es (EX) la conciencia del pueblo boliviano.

Y las prebendas en Bolivia ya no van (RE), acá el instrumento político ha puesto (MA) en balanza dos poderes: el poder de la prebenda, el poder económico y el poder de la conciencia. Felizmente y gracias a la madre tierra, gracias a nuestro Dios, decir gracias a mis padres, la conciencia ganó (MA) las elecciones, y ahora la conciencia del pueblo va a cambiar (MA) nuestra historia, hermanas y hermanos.

Por eso, por invitación de ustedes, por iniciativa de nuestras autoridades originarias, un saludo especial revolucionario a los ponchos rojos, a los hermanos jilakatas, a los mallkus, a los jiliri mallkus, a las mamatallas, muchas gracias autoridades originarias por realizar (MA) este acto tan originario nuestro, que me invitan (MA) a comprometerme para gobernar bien.

Sólo quiero decirles (VE) desde este lugar sagrado, con ayuda de ustedes hermanos y hermanas, quechuas, aymaras, guaraníes, queremos enseñar (MA) a gobernar con honestidad, con responsabilidad para cambiar la situación económica del pueblo boliviano.

Tenemos (RE) ya una responsabilidad cerca, que es la Asamblea Constituyente. Para la prensa internacional, para los invitados de la comunidad internacional, el año 1825 cuando se fundó Bolivia, después de que muchos, o miles o millones de aymaras, de quechuas, de guaraníes participaron (MA) en la lucha por la independencia, ellos no participaron (MA) en la fundación de Bolivia; se marginó (MA) la participación de los pueblos indígenas originarios en la fundación de Bolivia en el año 1825, por eso los pueblos indígenas originarios reclaman refundar (MA) Bolivia mediante la Asamblea Constituyente.

Quiero pedirle (VE) al nuevo Parlamento Nacional, que hasta los días febrero o marzo debe aprobarse (MA) la ley de convocatoria para la Asamblea Constituyente.

Una ley de convocatoria para la Asamblea Constituyente para garantizar la elección de Constituyente el 2 de julio de este año, y el día 6 de agosto en la capital histórica de fundación de Bolivia, Sucre Chuquisaca, instalaremos (MA) la Asamblea Constituyente para acabar con el Estado colonial.

Quiero pedirles (VE) hermanas y hermanos, unidad, unidad sobre todas las cosas. Ustedes han visto (BE) anoche el movimiento indígena de toda América concentrado en Bolivia, saludándonos (MA), emitiendo (MA) resoluciones de apoyo, de fortaleza a este movimiento político que quiere cambiar nuestra historia, y no solamente los movimientos sociales de América, o de Europa, o del Asia. Ustedes han visto (BE) hermanas y hermanos, este movimiento político levantó (MA) en alto a Bolivia, a nuestro país en toda la comunidad internacional.

Han visto (BE) también ustedes hermanas y hermanos, no estamos (RE) solos a nivel mundial, gobiernos, presidentes apoyan (MA) a Bolivia y a este gobierno apoyan (MA). Compañeras y compañeros, no debemos sentirnos (ME) solos.Estamos (RE) en tiempos de triunfos, estamos (RE) en tiempos de cambio, y por eso reclamo (MA) nuevamente, queremos (ME) unidad.

Quiero decir (VE) con mucho respeto, a los dirigentes, ex dirigentes, al hermano Felipe Quispe, convoco a unirnos (MA) todos para seguir avanzando hacia adelante, hermanas y hermanos.

A todos los dirigentes, ex dirigentes, a nombre de nuestros antepasados, comportarnos, unirnos porque llegó (MA) la hora de cambiar esa mala historia de saqueo a nuestros recursos naturales, de discriminación, de humillación, de odio, de desprecio. Los aymaras y quechuas no somos (RE) rencorosos, y si hemos ganado (MA) ahora, no es para vengarse con nadie, no es para someter a alguien, sólo reclamamos (MA) unidad, igualdad, hermanas y hermanos.

Hermanas y hermanos, nuevamente quiero decir (VE) acá, que esa campaña internacional que empezaron nuestros dirigentes de América, la campaña llamada 500 años de resistencia indígena y popular, el ’88, ’89, espero (ME) no equivocarme (RE), el ’92, acaba (MA) los 500 años de resistencia de los pueblos indígenas de América contra políticas, contra el colonialismo interno.

Después de reflexionar (ME) y escuchar (ME) a los hermanos indígenas que se reunieron (MA) ayer, y están (RE) acá seguramente muchos, a esos hermanos indígenas de América que están presentes, que están allá, un saludo, saludemos (BE) con un voto de aplauso a los hermanos indígenas de toda América, que están presentes acá.

Y quiero decirles (VE) a ellos, a ustedes hermanas y hermanos: de la resistencia a la toma del poder. Se (RE) acabó sólo resistir por resistir. Hemos visto (ME) que organizados y unidos con los movimientos sociales de las ciudades, del campo, combinando la conciencia social, con la capacidad intelectual es (RE) posible derrotar democráticamente los intereses externos. Eso pasó (EX) en Bolivia.

Por eso quiero decirles (VE) a los hermanos de América, de todo el mundo: unidos y organizados cambiaremos (MA) políticas económicas que no resuelven la situación económica de las mayorías nacionales. A esta altura nos hemos convencido (ME) que concentrar (MA) el capital en pocas manos no es (RE) ninguna solución para la humanidad; el concentrar el capital en pocas manos no es (RE) la solución para los pobres del mundo.Por eso tenemos (RE) la obligación de cambiar esos problemas económicos de privatización, de subasta. Eso tiene que terminar, y estamos empezando (MA) acá juntos. Todos de América, movimientos sociales, queremos (ME) seguir avanzando, avanzando para liberar nuestra Bolivia, liberar nuestra América, esa lucha que nos dejó Túpac Katari sigue (MA), hermanas y hermanos, y continuaremos (MA) hasta recuperar (MA) el territorio, la lucha que dejó Che Guevara, vamos a cumplir (MA) nosotros, hermanas y hermanos, así que podemos recordar (ME) de muchos líderes indígenas de la clase media que se organizaron (MA) para recuperar los recursos naturales.

Hermanas y hermanos, una emoción, nunca hemos estado (ME) acostumbrados a estar en esta clase de concentraciones. Ese momento cuando salí allá entendí (ME) que realmente el pueblo va organizándose (RE) y va movilizándose (RE).

Esta gran concentración, este lugar, compararía (ME) con la Plaza de la Revolución de Cuba. Cuando salí (MA) de allá miles de compañeros concentrados; en Bolivia nunca había visto (ME), una cosa son (RE) las concentraciones de campaña, otra cosa son (RE) actos de apoyo de fortaleza. Esta concentración es (RE) totalmente diferente, por eso agradecer, primero, a nombre del Movimiento Al Socialismo, segundo, a nombre de la bancada del MAS, y sobre todo a nombre de los pueblos indígenas originarios.

Muchas gracias hermanas y hermanos; esta lucha no se para (MA), esta lucha no termina (MA), en el mundo gobiernan (MA) los ricos o gobiernan (MA) los pobres. Tenemos (RE) la obligación y la tarea de crear conciencia en el mundo entero para que las mayorías nacionales, los pobres del mundo, conduzcan (MA) su país para cambiar la situación económica de su país, y desde acá impulsaremos (MA) que los pobres también tenemos (RE) derecho a gobernarnos, y en Bolivia los pueblos indígenas también tenemos (RE) derecho a ser presidentes.

Por eso, hermanas y hermanos, gracias al voto de ustedes, primeros en la historia boliviana, aymaras, quechuas, mojeños, somos (RE) presidentes, no solamente Evo es (RE) el presidente, hermanas y hermanos.

Muchísimas gracias.

Evo Morales’s speech after the Constitución Política del Estado was passed by Congress
Source: http://www.apoyobolivia.net/discurso-evo-morales
Date: 7th February 2009
Parlamentarios del Congreso Nacional, ministros, ministras de Estado. Saludo a los embajadores de Latinoamérica, bienvenidos a la Patria grande, bienvenidos a Bolivia. Saludo a los embajadores de Europa y de otros continentes, a los organismos internacionales que acompañan este acto histórico, saludo a la hermana Rigoberta Menchú, Premio Nobel de La Paz, saludo al Canciller de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, bienvenido a su Patria.

Compañeros y compañeras dirigentes de los movimientos sociales del campo y de la ciudad. Alto Mando de las Fuerzas Armadas de Bolivia, Comandante de la Policía Nacional, a todas las instituciones del Estado boliviano y al pueblo de Bolivia, presente y oyentes.

Hermanos y hermanas, bolivianos y bolivianas:
Después de 500 años de rebelión, invasión y saqueo permanente; después de 180 años de resistencia contra un Estado colonial, después de 20 años de lucha permanente contra un modelo neoliberal, hoy, 7 de febrero de 2009, es (RE) un acontecimiento histórico, un acontecimiento inédito, singular para Bolivia y para Latinoamérica, reunidos acá para promulgar la nueva Constitución Política del Estado.

Gracias a la conciencia del pueblo boliviano, gracias a los movimientos sociales, la fuerza motriz de la historia. Gracias a la participación activa y permanente garantizaron (MA) la aprobación de la nueva Constitución, por primera vez con el voto, con la conciencia y la participación soberana del pueblo boliviano.

Nunca el pueblo boliviano había decidido (MA) su destino. Desde el año 1824, 25 y 26, después de la fundación de la República hasta ahora, por lo menos 18 Constituciones Políticas del Estado boliviano. Los movimientos sociales, los obreros, los originarios, los patriotas en las ciudades, nunca tuvieron (RE) la oportunidad para participar en esas modificaciones de las constituciones, de las reformas que hicieron, sólo las oligarquías participaron (MA) permanentemente en las distintas reformas y de acuerdo a sus intereses. En algún momento los neoliberales acordaron (MA) las reformas a puertas cerradas, en algún momento el partido que tenía representación parlamentaria; pero el pueblo boliviano nunca tuvo (RE) oportunidad de participar, el pueblo boliviano siempre fue (RE) excluido y, especialmente, los más despreciados, los vilipendiados.

En la historia boliviana, es (RE) el movimiento indígena – campesino, después de tantos años, hermanas y hermanos, que empieza primero en la elección de los constituyentes, para una Asamblea Constituyente el año 2006, es (RE) su participación para redactar una nueva Constitución, inspirado en la lucha de nuestros antepasados, en la lucha de nuestros hermanos indígenas desde 1600 y 1700, inspirado en la lucha de muchos hermanos que fundaron Bolivia, y no podemos olvidar (ME) la rebelión del movimiento indígena en Bolivia, a la cabeza de Tupac Katari, Julián Apaza.Quiero decirles (VE) hermanas y hermanos de Bolivia, el año 1781, el día del descuartizamiento de Tupac Katari, ha sido (RE) el día de la gesta libertaria  para Bolivia y América Latina y para recordar algo de historia imagínense (ME) como un 13 de noviembre de 1781, los representantes del reinado sacan (MA) una sentencia para descuartizar a Tupac Katari y para recordar a nuestros hermanos menores quiero aprovechar (MA) esta oportunidad para leer (BE) esa sentencia que descuartizó a Tupac Katari.

La sentencia dice (VE) los siguiente: “fallo atento al mérito que resulta de la notoriedad de la sumaria y de la confesión y de los papeles por mi habidos, queremos condenar (ME) y condeno (MA) al convicto Julián Apaza, alias Tupac Katari, en pena originaria de muerte y el ultimo suplicio y en su conformidad usando de las facultades privativas del supremo gobierno de Buenos Aires. Cuando fuere sacado (MA) de la prisión donde se encontraba arrastrado (MA) por un caballo, con una soga en el cuello, cómo pedía (MA) la justicia y del beneficio y sosiego de ellos mismos y con unas cuerdas robustas en las manos y los pies sea descuartizado (MA) por cuatro caballos, para que muera (MA) y su cabeza sea llevada (MA) a la ciudad de La Paz”.

Quien condena (MA), quien dicta (MA) esa sentencia, es el oidor Francisco Tadeo y la medida se ejecuta (MA) el 14 de noviembre 1781. Imagínense (ME), hermanas y hermanos, como intentaron (MA) amedrentar, asustar, intimidar, escarmentar la rebelión de los pueblos indígenas que lucharon por la liberación, que lucharon por su territorio, que lucharon por su identidad, por eso digo (VE) el grito libertario nace (MA) en 1781, para el pueblo de Bolivia y de Latinoamérica a la cabeza de Julián Apaza, Tupac Katari.

Nunca debemos olvidar (ME) ese descuartizamiento, por supuesto tantos hermanos indígenas, hombres y mujeres, desde las épocas de la colonia luchando contra la invasión, contra la opresión, pero no solamente en esas épocas de levantamientos indígenas. Ha habido (EX) tantos líderes para la fundación de Bolivia como Moto Méndez, Juana Azurduy de Padilla, Sebastián Pagador, los hermanos Lanza y otros para liberarnos y fundar nuestra querida Bolivia.

No podemos olvidar (ME) las grandes luchas de las heroínas de la Coronilla, de Warnes y Cañoto y otros líderes indígenas que lucharon por la independencia de está querida Patria que es Bolivia, pero finalmente el año 1825 llega (MA) la fundación con el Libertador Simón Bolívar; y aquí estamos (RE) reunidos para garantizar la segunda independencia, la verdadera liberación del pueblo boliviano.El primer presidente de Bolivia y el segundo presidente proclamaron (MA) la integración y la unidad latinoamericana por la patria grande, como Tupac Katari, como nuestros hermanos indígenas, nuestros abuelos lucharon (MA) por la restauración del Tahuantisuyo y nuestros líderes lucharon (MA) por la patria grande.

El primer presidente boliviano, Andrés de Santa Cruz, de madre aymara y padre español, ha sido (RE) presidente de la hermana República del Perú, eso demuestra (BE) que habido (EX) desde la colonia, desde la fundación, una lucha permanente por la liberación de nuestros pueblos. No podemos olvidar (ME) hermanas y hermanos, que después de la fundación ha habido (EX) otro grupo de intelectuales y militares, de padres de la Iglesia Católica, que seguían una lucha defendiendo la vida, la justicia y la soberanía; aunque el Estado colonial nunca les permitió (MA).Nuestro homenaje a los héroes de la Guerra del Chaco, por supuesto, a los héroes de la Guerra del Pacífico y de la Guerra del Acre. Desde la Guerra del Chaco nace (MA) un sentimiento del nacionalismo militar boliviano, a la cabeza del Teniente Coronel Germán Busch, implementando (MA) por primera vez políticas sociales, atendiendo (MA) la demanda de los sectores abandonados, como siempre termina (MA) asesinado. No podemos olvidar (ME) al Cnl. David Toro que por primera vez y gracias a la Guerra del Chaco, gracias al nacionalismo de las Fuerzas Armadas, el año 1938 nacionaliza (MA) el petróleo boliviano.

Estamos (RE) aquí para nacionalizar los hidrocarburos para toda la vida, que ningún otro gobierno privatice (MA) y entregue (MA) este recurso natural a las transnacionales. Qué vivan los beneméritos! la lucha de ellos no ha sido (RE) en vano. Gualberto Villarroel por primera vez en la historia acabó (MA) con el pongueaje y reconoció (MA) las tierras comunitarias, esos son (RE) los militares patriotas que aportaron en la transformación.

El delito de Gualberto Villarroel fue (RE) la extinción del pongueaje, reconocer las tierras comunitarias y por eso acabó colgado (MA) por las oligarquías mineras, por los latifundistas. Ahora, hermanas y hermanos, en este nuevo milenio, nunca más habrá (EX) descuartizamientos, tampoco habrá (EX) colgamientos. Es (EX) una lucha histórica de reivindicaciones y de acabar con esta clase de políticas de escarmiento.

No podemos olvidar (ME) la lucha democrática de Marcelo Quiroga Santa Cruz, de nuevas generaciones que apuestan (MA) por su pueblo, transformaciones en democracia y defendiendo la democracia; pero, sobre todo, no podemos olvidar (ME) a un padre, Luis Espinal, que dio (MA) su vida por la vida de los demás, fue (RE) de la Iglesia Católica.

Hermanas y hermanos, durante la época neoliberal, durante las dictaduras del 60 y 70, a la gloriosa COB, al movimiento minero a la famosa FSTMB, que lucharon (MA) permanentemente por las reivindicaciones; sin embargo, los centros mineros militarizados, dirigentes mineros confinados, acribillados. Los dirigentes mineros acusados de rojos y comunistas, cuando ya no pudieron explicar (VE) al pueblo boliviano estas falsas acusaciones, durante la década del 80 y 90 los dirigentes sindicales acusaron (MA) de narcotraficantes, no solamente en Bolivia, sino en toda Latinoamérica.

El Gobierno campesino indígena a la cabeza de la CSUTCB, por supuesto a la cabeza de la COB, y todas las fuerzas sociales recuperaron (MA) la democracia que lamentablemente los agentes externos usaron (MA) con los distintos gobiernos para seguir oprimiendo al pueblo boliviano. Hermanas y hermanos, no podemos olvidar (ME) que a partir del 11 de septiembre del 2001, los dirigentes pasamos (MA) de ser rojos y comunistas, de ser narcotraficantes a ser terroristas.                               
Finalmente, gracias a los movimientos sociales, obreros y originarios se ha aprobado (MA) esta nueva Constitución. Intentaron (MA) permanentemente liquidar, eliminar a la Asamblea Constituyente con falsos pretextos, dijeron (VE) autonomía, ahí tienen autonomía; dijeron (VE) capitalía, ahí tiene las capitalía correspondiente; dijeron (VE) dos tercios y el 10 de agosto del año pasado más de dos tercios del pueblo boliviano apoyó (MA) esta revolución democrático cultural, ahí están (RE) los dos tercios. Debo decir (VE) gracias por ese apoyo consciente del pueblo boliviano. Hablaron (VE) de la propiedad privada, dijeron (VE) que íbamos a quitar (MA) la propiedad privada, la nueva CPE boliviana garantiza (MA) la propiedad privada, pero también garantiza (MA) la propiedad estatal y la propiedad colectiva de cooperativas, de asociaciones en toda Bolivia.

Hermanas y hermanos, esos grupos que representan todavía a los vendepatrias, a los neoliberales, intentan frenar (MA) este proceso revolucionario, pero no pudieron (MA) y no podrán (MA), porque hay (EX) una conciencia del pueblo boliviano que seguirá derrotando a los vendepatrias de la historia boliviana.

¿Y qué hicieron durante la campaña para la aprobación de la nueva Constitución? Nuevas mentiras, nuevos engaños. Nuestras queridas abuelas y abuelos me informaron (VE) en el campo, estos grupos han viajado (MA) por el campo para hacer campaña contra la nueva Constitución y con unos argumentos como que voten por el No para que el Presidente Evo Morales se quede, y nuestras abuelas y abuelos queriendo votar por el No, imagínense (ME) con semejante mentira querían engañarlos (ME).

El referéndum revocatorio ya pasó (MA), más bien no ha sido (RE) revocatorio, sino ratificatorio, hermanas y hermanos, gracias a ustedes.

En las ciudades, en algunas iglesias qué decían (VE). “Si el 25 de enero del 2009 se aprueba (MA) la nueva Constitución -decían (VE) algunos padres- nos van a perseguir (MA), van a cerrar (MA) nuestra Iglesia, no vamos a poder orar (MA), ni celebrar (MA) misa en ningún lugar”, ¡Qué mentira!, Que nos digan (VE) ahora, ¿cuántos padres hemos perseguido (MA)? ¿Cuántas iglesias hemos cerrado (MA)? Ninguna, y nunca se cerrará (MA) ninguna, pero sí hay (EX) libertad de religión. No habrá (EX) ninguna religión oficial, todos tienen (RE) la misma igualdad o sectores religiosos en Bolivia.

Hermanas y hermanos, hemos enfrentado (MA) tantas calumnias, tantas mentiras, tantas humillaciones para llegar a este día histórico, por eso yo quiero decirles (VE) que pese a esas adversidades, pese a esas humillaciones, llegamos (MA) a esta CPE boliviana. En esta CPE están consagradas (MA) las aspiraciones más profundas de los sectores más abandonados, como son los trabajadores, como el movimiento indígena; aquí están consagrados (MA) en la nueva CPE boliviana esos deseos, esas aspiraciones tan esperadas y tan postergadas y por eso primero esta nueva CPE boliviana protege (MA) por igual a todos los bolivianos, a todas las bolivianas.

Esta nueva CPE boliviana garantiza (MA) la igualdad de oportunidades para la gente del campo y de la ciudad, garantiza (MA) fundamentalmente, hermanas y hermanos, la unidad, la igualdad y la dignidad de todo el pueblo boliviano, y si hablamos (BE) de la dignidad yo quiero decirles (VE), hermanas y hermanos, que en tres años de Presidencia, de una vida diferente que es la vida sindical, una nueva experiencia,  sólo la sabiduría de nuestros pueblos, de nuestras fuerzas sociales, ha permitido identificar (MA), resistir (MA) y derrotar (MA) a los agente externos, derrotar (MA) al imperialismo norteamericano.

Gracias a esos movimientos sociales de toda Bolivia, en esta nueva CPE boliviana, hermanas y hermanos, se garantiza (MA) esa lucha histórica de nuestros antepasados y de nosotros de defender la vida, defender la justicia y defender la soberanía.

En esta nueva CPE boliviana no se permite y no se permitirá instalar (MA) ninguna base militar extranjera, por tanto no habrá (EX) embajadores como antes, que ponían ministros y despedían ministros; embajadores de EEUU que autorizaban la entrada de aviones al aeropuerto de Chimoré. Ha terminado (EX) eso gracias a la consciencia del pueblo boliviano.

Pero también, hermanas y hermanos, algo ético que se ha recuperado, es (RE) la ley que nos dejaron nuestros antepasados, por primera vez en la nueva CPE boliviana se incorpora (MA) el ama sua, ama llulla y ama k’ella.

Aquí yo debo decir (VE) que para implementar estas leyes que nos dejaron (MA) nuestros antepasados, tenemos que cambiar (MA) nosotros, tiene que cambiar (MA) Evo Morales, tiene que cambiar (MA) Álvaro García Linera, empezando de nuestras autoridades del gabinete, del Parlamento. ¿Y en qué consiste ese cambio? En dejar de ser egoístas, dejar de ser individualistas, dejar de ser ambiciosos, dejar de ser sectarios, regionalistas; primero la Patria, primero la igualdad, primero la unidad, primero la dignidad de los bolivianos y las bolivianas.

Quiero reafirmar (VE), hermanas y hermanos, que yo llegue (MA) a la conclusión que el nepotismo, que la burocracia del Estado y sobre todo la corrupción había sido (RE) un derecho del Estado colonial; por tanto, hermanas y hermanos, tenemos que descolonizar (MA) a este Estado colonial y uno de los temas centrales es (RE) el tema de la corrupción. Quiero aprovechar esta oportunidad, que a ningún corrupto se perdona (MA), sea masista o no masista; corruptos a la cárcel, sean familiares o no familiares, corruptos a la cárcel.

Pero también estamos viendo (ME), hermanas y hermanos, que algunos corruptos hablan (BE) de la corrupción, de luchar contra la corrupción. Esos corruptos del pasado no tienen (RE) ninguna moral, ninguna autoridad, para querer luchar contra la corrupción, primero ellos que se sometan a esta nueva Constitución para decir de dónde tienen tantos bienes y así vamos a acabar (MA) con la corrupción.

Hermanas y hermanos, en esta nueva CPE boliviana por supuesto está (RE) el sentimiento del pueblo boliviano, la lucha permanente contra el colonialismo, contra el neoliberalismo y fundamentalmente contra el imperialismo.

Si este es (RE) el contenido central de la nueva CPE boliviana, va a haber (EX) agentes internos y agentes externos que se opongan (MA), que se opusieron (MA) a la aprobación de la nueva Constitución.

Hermanas y hermanos, en esta nueva Constitución, por primera vez en la historia, y siento (ME) que es por primera vez en Latinoamérica o en el mundo, los servicios básicos, el agua, la luz, el teléfono, son (RE) un derecho humano, por tanto no serán (RE) de negocio privado sino de servicio público.Hermanas y hermanos, por supuesto algo importante y central, en esta nueva CPE boliviana se reconocen (MA) todos los idiomas de los pueblos originarios, también se reconoce (MA) al idioma español o castellano como decimos, no se excluye (RE) a nadie.Algo importante, un boliviano, una boliviana está obligado (MA) poco a poco a aprender a hablar un idioma originario y también el español, pero también un idioma extranjero; si hay inglés, alemán, italiano o portugués, es (RE) una forma de comunicarnos con todo el mundo. Ahí empezaremos (MA) desde el Palacio, algunos para mejorar nuestro aymara o nuestro quechua, algunos para aprender; pero también idiomas extranjeros para comunicarnos, repito (VE), con todo el mundo.

¿Cómo es posible que algunos grupos puedan rechazar estas reivindicaciones, postergadas eternamente, hermanas y hermanos?
Ustedes saben (ME), el pueblo boliviano sabe (ME) los avances que hemos tenido en esta nueva CPE boliviana. Por Constitución nunca se declarará (MA) la guerra a un país vecino; somos (RE) un país pacifista. Eso no significa (VE), hermanas y hermanos, que si hay agresión no tenemos derecho a defendernos; si hay agresión nos defenderemos (MA), para eso está (EX) el mando único de las Fuerzas Armadas de Bolivia, como también de la Policía Nacional.

Bolivianas y bolivianos, siento (ME) que se ha avanzado bastante, sólo gracias a la conciencia del pueblo boliviano; inspirados, repito (VE), en nuestros héroes, inspirados en nuestros próceres de la liberación y, sobre todo, en los movimientos sociales, del campo y la ciudad. Saludo (BE) la lucha histórica del CONALCAM, la COB.

La nueva Constitución Política del Estado boliviano ha sido (RE) el eje central para unir a todos los sectores de trabajadores, nunca han visto (ME) algo similar antes seguramente en la historia boliviana.

La marcha, la gran marcha de octubre para obligar al Congreso Nacional que apruebe una ley que permita consultar al pueblo boliviano. Gracias a esas marchas, campesinos, transportistas, indígenas, mineros de las minas nacionalizadas, mineros cooperativistas, intelectuales, profesores de las universidades, cocaleros, todos y todas.

Yo siento (ME) de verdad que esa marcha de octubre, quien sabe (ME) nunca se repetirá, así como esta gran concentración, miles y miles, concentrados para presenciar la promulgación de la nueva CPE. Hermanas y hermanos, sólo con el coraje del pueblo boliviano, con la templanza, con la tenacidad, con la fortaleza de los movimientos sociales; pero también con la paciencia, con la conciencia del pueblo, con la tolerancia de nuestros dirigentes de los movimientos sociales, hoy, delante del pueblo boliviano, promulgaremos (MA) esta nueva CPE.

Quiero aprovechar (ME) para saludar la gran participación de muchas instituciones del Estado, de los mandos de las Fuerzas Armadas del 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, igualmente del mando policial, junto a su pueblo; ahora Fuerzas Armadas del pueblo para el pueblo, trabajando y participando permanentemente en las transformaciones profundas. Los mandos de las Fuerzas Armadas, desde el momento que llegamos al Palacio, ya pasaron (MA) a la historia, a la nueva historia, a la nueva página, por defender la Patria y servir al pueblo boliviano junto a los movimientos sociales. Un comandante de las Fuerzas Armadas me decía (VE), “díganos (VE) con qué dirigentes sindicales debemos coordinar (MA) para defender la unidad de la Patria, cuando so pretexto de autonomía querían dividir (MA) Bolivia. No habrá (EX), hermanas y hermanos, ni cuatro prefectos, ni cuatro cívicos que puedan descuartizar (MA) a Bolivia, como cuatro caballos descuartizaron (MA) a Tupac Katari.

Hermanas y hermanos, algo nunca debemos olvidar (ME), lo que dijo (VE) nuestro abuelo Tupac Katari: “Yo muero (MA), pero volveré (MA) convertido en millones”. Ahí están (EX) los millones hermanas y hermanos, a partir del 2005, triunfos permanentes y seguidos, el 2005, 2006, ganamos (MA) con más del 50 por ciento, democráticamente; 2008, 2009, ganamos (MA) con más del 60 por ciento hermanas y hermanos, y quiero decirles, para fines de este año, como vamos subiendo (MA), triunfos con más del 50 por ciento, triunfos con más del 60 por ciento, en diciembre tendremos que ganar (MA) con más del 70 por ciento hermanas y hermanos, para garantizar esta revolución democrática cultural.

Con permiso de ustedes, vamos a promulgar (MA) la nueva CPE del Estado boliviano, delante de ustedes, de cara al pueblo boliviano, no como antes, sólo en el Congreso dentro de cuatro paredes. Aquí no tenemos (RE) nada que ocultar, es (RE) la transparencia, eso es, hermanas y hermanos, la conciencia del pueblo boliviano, para promulgar la nueva Constitución. Con permiso de ustedes.

Hermanas y hermanos de Bolivia, en este día histórico, proclamo (MA) promulgada la nueva Constitución Política del Estado boliviano, la vigencia del Estado plurinacional unitario, social y económicamente, el socialismo comunitario a partir de la promulgación de la nueva Constitución Política del Estado boliviano; pero también hermanas y hermanos debo decirles (VE), y el pueblo boliviano sabe (ME), algunos grupos, permanentemente intentaron sacarme (MA) del Palacio y ustedes saben (ME), algunos grupos permanentemente intentaron matarme (MA).Ahora quiero decirles (VE), pueden sacarme (MA) del Palacio, pueden matarme (MA), misión cumplida por la refundación de una nueva Bolivia unida. Pero también quiero que sepan (ME) hermanas y hermanos, que mientras tenga (MA) la vida, mientras el destino me acompañe (MA), seguiremos trabajando (MA) por la unidad, por la igualdad, por la dignidad, y aprovecho (MA) esta oportunidad para convocar a todos los alcaldes de Bolivia; convocamos (MA) a todos los prefectos de Bolivia, para juntos implementar esta nueva Constitución Política del Estado boliviano. Quienes lucharon (MA) por las autonomías, tienen garantizadas autonomías departamentales, regionales, indígenas para todos los bolivianos.

Hermanas y hermanos, es (RE) impresionante lo que estamos haciendo, de la rebelión de nuestros antepasados a la revolución democrática y cultural, de la revolución democrática cultural a la refundación de Bolivia. De la refundación, y es (RE) mi pedido, con respeto, de la refundación de Bolivia, a la reconciliación de los originarios milenarios con los originarios contemporáneos, respetando la igualdad de todos los bolivianos, de todas las bolivianas. Necesitamos (MA) un poco de tiempo para esta reconciliación; trabajemos (MA), como siempre, con todas nuestras fuerzas sociales, con nuestras instituciones del Estado, por eso hermanas y hermanos, hoy día, histórico, proclamamos (MA) el Estado plurinacional, desde la ciudad de El Alto, desde Bolivia para el mundo. Para terminar, quiero que me ayuden (ME) a decir (VE), ¡El Alto de pie, nunca de rodillas! ¡Bolivia de pie, nunca de rodillas! ¡Patria o muerte! ¡Venceremos! ¡Qué viva Bolivia unida con autonomías! ¡Jallalla Bolivia soberana! ¡Kausachun Bolivia digna! ¡Kausachun!
Bolivianas y bolivianos, instituciones del Estado, Fuerzas Armadas de Bolivia, Policía Nacional, movimientos sociales, hermanos dirigentes sindicales, ministros de Estado, alcaldes, concejales, consejeros, señor Vicepresidente de la República, hagan (MA) la señal de acuerdo a su creencia.

A nombre de los próceres de la liberación, a nombre de los héroes, de nuestros antepasados que dieron (MA) la vida por la vida de los demás, a nombre del pueblo boliviano, juran respetar (MA) y hacer respetar (MA) la nueva Constitución Política del Estado bolivianos. Si así lo hicieran (MA), nuestros próceres de la liberación, nuestros héroes de la resistencia contra el Estado colonial, los premien (MA), caso contrario, los castiguen (MA). Han jurado (MA) para defender la nueva Constitución Política del Estado.

Evo Morales Talks To Nation After Election – Plaza Murillo – La Paz Source: http://www.comunicacion.gob.bo/sites/default/files/media/discursos/III.%2012%20-%2010%20-%202014%20TEXTO%20EDITADO%20PRESIDENTE%20EVO%20MORALES %20DISCURSO%20A%20LA%20NACIÓN%20TRAS%20JORNADA%20ELECTORAL%20-%20PLAZA%20MURILLO%20–%20LA%20PAZ%20%281%29.pdf
Date: 12th Octobre 2014
Muchas gracias hermanos, hermanas de Bolivia, a todas y todos; estamos acá el hermano Vicepresidente, con el hermano Canciller, con algunos ministros, ministras, pero también acompañado por nuestros dirigentes de la COB y otros sectores sociales.

Hermanas, quiero decirles (VE) después de escuchar (BE) el informe de los resultados de estas elecciones, a nombre personal, pero también a nombre de nuestro Vicepresidente y a nombre de quienes luchamos (MA) por la liberación de toda Bolivia, agradecemos (MA) por este gran apoyo, muchas gracias hermanas y hermanos por este nuevo triunfo del pueblo boliviano.

Seguimos creciendo (MA), hemos revisado (MA) los datos preliminares, hicieron conocer (MA) a partir de las ocho de la noche; en todos los departamentos hemos crecido (MA), en ocho departamentos oficialmente ya hemos ganado (MA) las elecciones.

Todavía puede haber (EX) una sorpresa, un departamento, la pelea es (RE) voto a voto como dicen (VE). ¿Qué siento hermanas y hermanos? Hay (EX) un profundo sentimiento no solamente en Bolivia sino en toda América Latina y el Caribe, un sentimiento de liberación de nuestros pueblos.

¿Hasta cuándo seguir sometidos al imperio norteamericano, o un sistema capitalista? y este triunfo, es (RE) el triunfo de los anticolonialistas y antiimperialistas, es (RE) del pueblo boliviano.

Que tan importante había sido buscar la integración de nuestros pueblos, buscar la unidad del pueblo boliviano y hoy día, decirle a todo el pueblo boliviano, que nuevamente se ha ratificado (MA) de manera democrática que en Bolivia no hay (EX) “media luna, sino “luna llena”, eso expreso (VE) el pueblo boliviano con su voto.

Pero también hermanas y hermanos, aquí estaba (EX) en debate dos programas, la nacionalización, frente a la privatización, y nuevamente con más del 60%, gana (MA) la nacionalización.

Hermanas y hermanos, el esfuerzo de ustedes, el esfuerzo de compañeros de base, el esfuerzo de los dirigentes de base, el compromiso de nuestros dirigentes nacionales a la cabeza de Conalcam, la COB, el compromiso de nuestros servidores públicos a la cabeza de nuestros ministros, ministras, el compromiso de nuestras instituciones, no ha sido (RE) en vano.Ese esfuerzo, esa unidad del pueblo, demuestra (VE) que seguimos en ese proceso de liberación económica, política y tecnológica; será (RE) la próxima responsabilidad si hablamos de la parte tecnológica.

Pero también hermanas y hermanos, quiero decirles (VE), qué tan importante había sido siempre escucharnos, siempre debatir entre nosotros, siempre plantearnos nuevas propuestas y quiero decirle (VE) al pueblo paceño y al pueblo boliviano, siempre pensar en grande y no en pequeño.

Solamente porque les digo (VE) esto, recordaran (ME) ustedes, cuando nos hemos propuesto (MA) tener satélite de comunicación, algunos comentaristas, algunos opositores decían (VE) que ese satélite es para EE.UU., para Europa, no es para Bolivia. Ahora tenemos (RE) satélite de comunicación y esa política ha ganado (MA) hermanas y hermanos.Cuando nos hemos propuesto (MA), cuando dijimos (MA), ahora vamos a ir (MA) a la energía atómica con fines pacíficos, otra vez nos dicen (VE), ‘no, eso es (RE) para países desarrollados’ vamos a empezar (MA) con energía nuclear con fines pacíficos hermanas y hermanos, eso es (RE) pensar en grande.

Cuando dijimos (VE) hermanas y hermanos, cuando dijimos (VE) vamos a ser (RE) centro energético de Sud América, estamos (RE) preparados y vamos a ser (RE), y ese voto ha ganado (MA) y vamos a garantizar (MA) que Bolivia sea el centro energético de Sud América.Hermanas y hermanos, de verdad, sorprendido nuevamente por el triunfo del pueblo boliviano, muy contento, muy feliz y esta clase de resultados nos comprometen (MA) mucho más para seguir integrándonos, no solamente como bolivianos sino como latinoamericanos. Saludamos (BE) a la delegación de Argentina, de Brasil, de Uruguay y de otros países presentes acá,……de Chile, de Perú, toda América Latina; de Francia, de Europa; Venezuela, presente acá.

Hermanas y hermanos, un gran movimiento latinoamericano de liberación; pero también aprovecho (MA) esta oportunidad, hermanas y hermanos, ese esfuerzo, ese compromiso, esa reflexión que nos hacen nuestros movimientos sociales, no va a ser (RE) en vano; es lo que nos decía (VE) nuestro subcomandante Marcos, “gobernar (MA) obedeciendo al pueblo”, es lo que hacemos (MA) todas las veces.

Acabamos de informarnos (ME), en Argentina, los hermanos argentinos ganaron (MA) con 87%, un saludo al hermano boliviano que vive (MA) en Argentina; ganamos (MA) en Brasil.

Casi, casi en todos los países, en 33 países.

Hermanas y hermanos, también debemos recordarles (ME).A esos hermanos argentinos vamos a nacionalizarlos (MA), para que griten cada día ole, ole, ole.

Hermanas y hermanos, hay (EX) ‘Generación Evo’, lo que falta es (RE) ‘generación Eva’.

Juventudes.

Hermanas y hermanos, el otro tema que debemos hacer mención (VE) es el siguiente, yo no he respondido (BE) mucho a nuestros opositores, pero casi todos plantearon sumarse (MA) a la Alianza del Pacífico, ¿qué significa eso?, significa implementar (MA) las políticas llamadas de consenso de Washington, eso es que vuelva el ALCA -gracias al hermano de Argentina- tenemos (ME) aquí derrotado al ALCA; significa en otras palabras, hermanas y hermanos, privatizar los servicios básicos, es (RE) el planteamiento del grupo llamado Alianza del Pacífico.

Ustedes han escuchado (ME) “hay que entrar (MA) a la Alianza del Pacífico”, no compartimos (MA), son nuestras profundas diferencias ideológicas, programáticas con quienes quieren privatizar (ME) los servicios básicos; pero, no hay (EX) mucho que comentar, sino ¿qué les decimos?, que los servicios básicos son (RE) un derecho humano, eso se ganó (MA) en estas elecciones nacionales. En estas elecciones nacionales ha ganado (MA) la dignidad, la unidad y la soberanía del pueblo boliviano.Quiero aprovechar (MA), hermanas y hermanos, a nombre de ustedes, este triunfo del pueblo boliviano en democracia, queda dedicado (MA) a todos los pueblos en América Latina y en el mundo, que luchan (MA) contra el capitalismo y contra el imperialismo.

Este triunfo hermanas y hermanos, es dedicado (MA) a Fidel Castro, dedicado (MA) a Hugo Chávez, que en paz descanse, este triunfo es dedicado (MA) a todos los presidentes de los gobiernos antiimperialistas y anticapitalistas.

Hermanos obreros, hermanos originarios, hermanos de la clase media, profesionales, hemos crecido (MA) bastante con pensamiento, con sentimiento que viene de nuestro pueblo. Eso se consolida (MA) en este proceso conocido como Proceso de Cambio, pero en otras palabras conocido como la Revolución Democrática y Cultural. Por eso, hermanas y hermanos bolivianos, no estamos (RE) solos, aquí en La Paz, ya sencillo ganar; muchas gracias al pueblo paceño por acompañarnos, por defendernos, por cuidarnos cinco años, nos cuidaron (MA) nueve años.

Tienen que cuidar (MA) cinco años más.

Quiero agradecer (MA) también el apoyo de todos nuestros alcaldes, alcaldesas, asambleístas departamentales, nacionales, concejales, a nuestros gobernadores que se sumaron a la campaña, todo por el pueblo boliviano. Entonces, hermanas y hermanos, un triunfo nuevamente con más del 60%; para los hermanos que nos visitan (MA), es (EX) el séptimo triunfo, tres ganamos (MA) con más del 50% y cuatro veces ganamos (MA) con más del 60%.

Solo el pueblo unido y organizado entre obreros, originarios, campesinos, indígenas, transportistas, todos los sectores sociales, podemos demostrar (MA) que sí, los pueblos tienen derecho a liberarse democráticamente. Esta es (RE) una forma de liberarnos democráticamente, por eso hermanas y hermanos, muy contento y feliz, muchas gracias, nuevamente decirles a las hermanas que hacen (MA) rito, muchas gracias por acompañarnos siempre con su rito; decir muchas gracias a las iglesias católica, evangélica, metodista, estoy convencido (ME) que todos oraron (MA) por el proceso, oraron (MA) por Bolivia, por la unidad; sus oraciones, sus bendiciones no han sido (RE) en vano, muchas gracias a ellos también, por ese trabajo, por esa lucha, por esa participación en bien de todo el pueblo boliviano.

Saludar nuevamente a Pando, yo diría (VE) por poco nos faltó (MA) un senador, casi los cuatro senadores en el departamento de Pando; ¡imagínense (ME)!, un gran triunfo.

Hermanas y hermanos, saludo (BE) a Pando, a Beni, a todos los trabajadores, a todos los movimientos sociales que acompañaron este acto; Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Potosí, Chuquisaca, Tarija, Oruro, La Paz por supuesto, La Paz que siempre acompaña. Hermanas y hermanos, nuevamente agradecer su presencia, su esfuerzo, su compromiso no va a ser (RE) en vano, sabemos (MA) responder, sabemos (MA) trabajar, vamos a seguir trabajando (MA). Y quiero decirles (VE) a nuestros opositores, no hagamos (MA) confrontación, vengan, trabajemos (MA) con ellos por Bolivia.

Saben (ME) ustedes, hermanos, hermanas de La Paz presentes, pero también oyentes en toda Bolivia, por Bolivia soportamos (MA) con mucha paciencia, saben (ME) ustedes, no hay porque comentar (ME), no hay porque reflexionar (ME) o no hay porque recordar (ME), y vamos sacando (MA) paciencia, todo por Bolivia, por eso los convocamos (MA) a ellos a sumarse, a trabajar; tienen (RE) derecho a discrepar, pero por encima de eso está nuestra querida Bolivia. Si algún programa, proyecto está (RE) mal que nos rechacen y que nos propongan, debatamos (MA), si está bien, aprobamos para implementarlos (MA). Así hemos avanzado (MA), ustedes saben (ME), hermanas y hermanos, yo he convocado (MA) desde Palacio a todos los alcaldes para trabajar y hemos trabajado (MA), nunca he dicho (VE) si este alcalde es del partido o no es del partido y así nos hemos ganado (MA) la confianza de toda Bolivia, por eso hemos ganado (MA) estas elecciones, hermanos y hermanos.

Nuevamente, hermanas y hermanos, muchas gracias por su presencia, aquí petroleros, mineros, fabriles, compañeros constructores, padres de familia, Conamype, miembros de la Central Obrera Boliviana, magisterio urbano, rural, Bartolinas, todos, muchas gracias.