The mental state of a person is a relatively stable structural organization of all components of the psyche, performing the function of active interaction of a person (as the owner of this psyche) with the external environment presented at the moment by a concrete situation.
All the variety of forms of human behavior is due, on the one hand, to their qualitative specificity, which is determined by the objective orientation of the activity and its motivation. On the other hand, different forms of human activity can be characterized from the point of view of the intensity of their manifestation. By this usually mean the degree of actualization of the psychophysiological resources of the individual, necessary to perform certain activities in specific conditions. Thus, there are various grounds for classifying states. Consider the classification by the following features:
– on the basis of duration: relatively stable and long-lasting conditions, reflecting the person’s attitude to work, states of satisfaction and dissatisfaction, indifference to work, reflecting the general mental attitude;
– temporary situational conditions, periodically arising in the course of activity;
– states that occur periodically during the course of work: the phases of working capacity – worked, sustained performance, fatigue;
– conditions, conditioned by the content of work: apathy, boredom, drowsiness, increased activity;
– The leading component (physiological and mental): muscle tension, mental tension, mental stress;
– by the degree of tension of the systems (sensory loading): visual, auditory, tactile, muscular load;
– on the degree of active activity of consciousness: wakefulness, fury, sleep;
– by the dominant properties of the personality or by the sign of the predominance of one side of the psyche: emotional, volitional, stress states.
All mental states can be divided into two types – favorable and unfavorable for the performance of this activity. In the first case, the reaction of the organism to the emerging working conditions has the character of adequate mobilization, i.e. changes in the state of the operator are a natural reaction to the action of these factors and determine the normal effectiveness of its operation. In the second case, changes in the state of the operator go beyond the limits set by the standard. Such a reaction of the organism is accompanied by pronounced disturbances in the working capacity of a person.
The most significant of the favorable conditions is (in the general case) the state of optimal performance. The most characteristic for the operator’s activity (its special cases) are the states of attention and readiness for emergency action.
Among the unfavorable states of operators are fatigue and emotional tension.
Adverse factors that increase tension, refer to the following groups:
1) physiological discomfort, i.e. inadequate living conditions for regulatory requirements;
2) biological fear;
3) lack of time for servicing;
4) increased difficulty of the task;
5) increased importance of erroneous actions;
6) the presence of relevant interference;
7) failure due to objective circumstances;
8) lack of information for decision-making;
9) underloading of information (sensory deprivation);
10) information overload;
11) conflict conditions, i.e. conditions under which the performance of one of them requires the implementation of actions that contradict the fulfillment of another condition.
Stresses can be classified according to those mental functions that are predominantly involved in professional activities and whose changes are most pronounced under adverse conditions:
1. Intellectual tension is the stress caused by frequent reference to intellectual processes in the formation of the maintenance plan, due to the high density of the flow of problem situations service.
2. Sensory stress – the voltage caused by suboptimal conditions of sensory and perceptual systems and arising in the event of great difficulty in perceiving the necessary information.
3. Monotony – the tension caused by the monotony of the actions performed, the inability to switch attention, the increased demands for concentration and sustainability of attention.
4. Politonia – the tension caused by the need to switch attention, frequent and in unexpected directions.
5. Physical exertion – the body’s stress caused by increased stress on the motor apparatus of the person.
6. Emotional stress – tension caused by 1 conflict conditions, increased probability of occurrence of an emergency situation, unexpectedness or long-term stress of other types.
7. Expectation voltage – the voltage caused by the need to maintain the readiness of work functions in the absence of activity.
8. Motivational tension is associated with the struggle of motives, with the choice of criteria for making a decision.
9. Fatigue – a strain associated with a temporary decline in performance, caused by prolonged work.