Task Part 1 A tension test has been carried out where load in Newtons was applied on an Aluminum wire having its diameter in mm and following stress vs strain data was obtained experimentally

Task Part 1
A tension test has been carried out where load in Newtons was applied on an Aluminum wire having its diameter in mm and following stress vs strain data was obtained experimentally:
Stress 4.9 8.7 15 18.4 24.2 27.3
Strain 0.00007
0.00013
0.00021
0.00027
0.00034
0.00039

Stress is the ratio of an applied force F to a cross sectional area expressed as force per unit area. ?=F/A=N/m^2

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SI basic unit of area is : m^2

SI basic unit of force is : kg×m/s^2
Stress is the result of internal forces, or forces that result when internal particles react to each other. These internal forces are caused when a load is applied to an object. To be able to look at the internal forces that cause stress you have to cut the object in question. Cutting means you make a hypothetical cut through the object and create a diagram looking at those forces. Dividing the force by the object’s cross-sectional area, which is the area of the object when you look along the cut, allows us to normalize the forces and take into account that a larger object will be able to hold more forces for no other reason than the object is bigger.

Strain
Strain, represented by the Greek letter ?, is a term used to measure the deformation or extension of a body that is subjected to a force or set of forces. The strain of a body is generally defined as the change in length divided by the initial length

?=?L/Li ,dimensionless

The elongation of the bar is assumed normal, or perpendicular, to the cross section.

Young’s Modulus
Young’s modulus can be used to predict the elongation or compression of an object when exposed to a force

Most metals deforms proportional to imposed load over a range of loads. Stress is proportional to load and strain is proportional to deformation as expressed with Hooke’s Law.

Modulus of Elasticity, or Young’s Modulus, is commonly used for metals and metal alloys and expressed in terms 106lbf/in2, N/m2 or Pa.
For linearly elastic materials, Hooke’s Law relates the stress of a body to the strain in the elastic range.

Part 2

Part 3

Material Testing method

Flexible (tensile) tests are for the most part looked at on wire, strip or machined tests with either round or rectangular cross territory. Test pieces are fixed into or held jaws and stretched out by moving the holds isolated at an enduring rate while assessing the pile and the grip separation.
The information delivered in a malleable test can be utilized from multiple points of view including:

To decide bunch quality

To decide consistency in make

To help in the plan procedure

To lessen material expenses and accomplish lean assembling objectives

To guarantee consistence with worldwide and industry models

Construction Industry

Utilizations of malleable testing in the development business include:

• Bond quality testing of cements, mastics, sealants and bonds among block and froth layers

• Tensile and material quality testing of geotextiles and security bolster netting

Hardness
Hardness is not an intrinsic property of a material. The values ascribed are due to a complex combination of deformation and elastic behavior.
The Rockwell test is for the most part simpler to perform, and more precise than different kinds of hardness testing strategies. The Rockwell test technique is utilized on all metals, with the exception of in condition where the test metal structure or surface conditions would present excessively varieties; where the spaces would be too expansive for the application; or where the example size or test shape restricts its utilization.

One of the advantages of Rockwell testing are listed below:
Simple and easy test procedure
Readings can be directly read from scale
Able to test hardness of a variety of materials.

The Rockwell hardness test estimates hardness in the easiest path conceivable: by squeezing an indenter into the surface of the material with a particular load and after that estimating how far the indenter could infiltrate. It utilizes a tapered precious stone or a hard steel ball as an indenter.
Tensile gives you the material’s mass property, similar to durability. Or on the other hand as such “the obstruction of a material to breaking under strain” Hardness : Gives you the materials surface property, similar to scratch obstruction. Or on the other hand as such “protection from space”.

Part 4
I=(bd^3)/12=((9×10^(-3) ) (3×10^(-3) )^3)/12=2.025×10^(-11) m^4

Ealuminum=60GPa=6.9×?10?^9 N/m^2
L= 0.2m

Mass Deflection=WL^3/3EI
0.1 1.87×10^(-3)
0.2 3.74×10^(-3)
0.3 5.61×10^(-3)
0.4 7.48×10^(-3)
0.5 9.36×10^(-3)

I=(bd^3)/12=((9×10^(-3) ) (3×10^(-3) )^3)/12=2.025×10^(-11) m^4
L= 0.2m

Esteel=207GPa=2.070×?10?^11 N/m^2
Mass Deflection=WL^3/3EI
0.1 6.24×?10?^(-4)
0.2 1.24×?10?^(-3)
0.3 1.87×?10?^(-3)
0.4 2.496×?10?^(-3)
0.5 3.12×?10?^(-3)

Slope calculated in Deflection of Al is 0.187, while the slope in deflection of Steel is 0.063. Aluminum is an exceptionally attractive metal since it is more pliant and flexible than steel. Aluminum can end up in a good place and make shapes that steel can’t, regularly framing further or more mind boggling spinning’s. Particularly for parts with profound and straight dividers, aluminum is the material of decision. Steel is an exceptionally intense and versatile metal however can’t for the most part be pushed to indistinguishable extraordinary dimensional points of confinement from aluminum without breaking or tearing amid the turning procedure.
Indeed, even with the likelihood of erosion, steel is harder than aluminum. Most spinnable tempers of aluminum, ding or scratch all the more effectively when contrasted with steel. Steel is solid and more averse to twist, twist or twist underweight, power or heat. In any case the quality of steel’s tradeoff is that steel is considerably heavier/significantly denser than aluminum. Steel is regularly 2.5 times denser than aluminum.