Module 2 Activity2

Module 2
Activity2.1
Outline current legislation, and guidelines within own UK Home Nation affecting the safeguarding of children and young people:
In any organisation where people come in contact with children in their everyday work, there has to be a responsibility of safeguarding and promoting the children’s need and welfare. Therefore, in order to safeguard and promote the children’s welfare, there are some legislations and policies put in place to prevent child abuse or to protect a child where there is a sign that the child is suffering abuse or is likely to suffer as a result of abuse. Those legislations include:
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
This legislation, stipulated the responsibility of parents and of those who work with children to ensure the safety of the child. It outlines the child’s entitlements to protection from all kinds of abuse (physical, mentally, emotionally, etc) and ensures the child’s protection from violence, injury, negligence and exploitation.

The Education Act (2002)
This Act states all the responsibilities of Local Education Authorities, governing bodies, head teachers and all staff working in schools to make sure that children are safe and free from any form of harm. It stipulates their responsibilities with regards to child protection .Children Act (2004)
This Act includes slogan like ” Every Child Matters”(ECM) and “Common Assessment Framework”(CAF). It outlines vital areas of a child needed to be addressed in order to ensure that every child achieve their potentials .(Those vital areas may include concerns about children’s health, development, welfare, behaviour, progress in learning or any other aspect of their wellbeing) . It gives educational staff authority to use a shared data base of information to ensure that every child’s needs are identified and taken care of, so that no child is left out in education.

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Children Act (1989
This Act sets out the duties parents and professionals in ensuring the safety of the child. This Act ensures that the welfare of the child is paramount. The Local Authority has to put in place, the important services in order to safeguard and promote the child’s welfare, especially of those children that are in need. Any concern that suggests that a child might be at risk of harm has to be thoroughly investigated.

The Counter Terrorism and Security Act(2015)
This Act was set up in order to handle the issue of young people being drawn to terrorism. It outlines how the schools should assess the signs of students being at risk of being drawn into terrorism. They ensure that all staff participate in prevent training.

Activity 2.2
Explain child protection within the wider concept of safeguarding children and young people: Currently, many organisations that work with children prefer to use the word ‘Safeguarding Children’ instead of ‘Child Protection’ because ‘Safeguarding’ is all-encompassing than ‘Protection’. Child protection is just part of Safeguarding Children. It involves all the activities that are carried out in order to protect the children that might be at risk of any form of abuse which may be detrimental to their holistic development . It also involves protecting children and young people from abuse and preventing any incident that may be detrimental to child’s health and development by ensuring children are raised in positive circumstances and by providing safe and caring environments. Therefore, in order to achieve the above purpose, if it comes to light that a child is abused or is at risk of being abused, he/she may be taken away from the suspected perpetrators( parents, carers,etc.) and be taken into care in order to protect the child from danger. It also involves assessment and observation of a child in order to find if that child has an additional needs or support.

Activity 2.3
How do national and local guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding, affect day-to-day work with children and young people:
In any work setting where children are involved, there are laid down national and local guidelines, policies and procedures which are put in place in order to ensure the safeguarding of children and young people. These guidelines, policies and procedures affect daily activities of all staff working with children. The National Authority produces the country’s safeguarding policies and procedures which act as guidelines for all Local Authorities in the country. These guidelines, policies and procedures may include:
Children Act 2004: Because of this Act which states that ” Every Child Matters” all the educational staff have authority to use a shared data base of information to ensure that every child’s needs are identified and taken care of, so that no child is left out in education. Therefore, with regards to this Act, all the settings including agencies that are working with children could have access to the vital information of the child with sole aim of safeguarding the child. It ensures that the child stays healthy, safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being.

The Education Act (2002)
This Act places an incumbent upon the Local Authorities, governing bodies, head teachers etc. to promote and safeguard the welfare of the children and young people. Since the enactment of this Act, the Local Authorities, governing bodies and head teachers put it into practice by ensuring that all the staff that are working in their settings are given training in order to help them be aware of child protection procedures, health and safety procedures, signs of abuse and how to spot them, how to report concerns if they have any about a child and how to keep environment safe for children.

Risk Assessment Policy: In order to put this policy into practice, any activity planned for children in all settings that work with children must undergo ” Risk Assessment” which aims at ensuring that those activities, environment and equipment used are suitable for the children’s age without being detrimental to children’s health and safety. In order to achieve this purpose, the staff are given proper training on how to carry out risk assessment to ensure that the children are safe .Child Protection Policy :Disclosure AND Barring Service(DBS)
This is one of the child safeguarding policies and procedures which is put in place to ensure that any staff being employed by a setting to work with children is eligible and suitable for the work. It ensures that the staff are properly scrutinized before they are employed to work with children and by so doing, children are being protected from being exposed to criminals.

Activity 2.4
Explain when and why inquiries and serious reviews are required and how the sharing of the findings informs practice
The most important role of any setting’s management is to ensure that people in the setting both children and staff are safeguarded and protected from harm or danger, but sometimes even when the management thought that they have put in place sufficient safeguarding policies and procedures, things may still go wrong. In such situation like when things go wrong, enquiries and serious reviews are seriously recommended. Take for instance, where a child or adult died or suffered serious harm because of known or suspected abuse or neglect. When one of the above incidents or such like happened, the setting’s management has to make serious enquiries in order to investigate further what had happened to see if there is a loophole in their policies that allowed the incident to happen and to determine the lessons which are to be learned from the incident. Then after the enquiry comes the review. Enquiries reveals loopholes in the policies(ie, things that could have been done better) in order to protect the victim of the incident while the review goes into the existing policies to make amendment and to outline better measures that should be taken by the staff and the management in future so as to avoid reoccurrence of the said incident.  After the reviews comes the written report which will be made public so that recommendations are known to other agencies or settings working with children to enable them to avoid repetition of the same mistake. 
Activity 2.5
Explain how the processes used by a setting or service comply with legislation that covers data protection, information handling and sharing:
In any setting that is working with children, sharing information among the necessary agencies is very important, although while the information is being shared, care should be taken in order to avoid breach of confidentiality. This means that in the framework of safeguarding, sharing information must be done according to guidelines and procedures outlined in the law about the protection of children and data protection. The information should be password protected and should not leave the setting but must remain confidential unless on the basis of need to know. All the staff and professionals involved with children must be trained to enable them know and understand how to effectively share the information among the people that need to know with the sole aim of protecting and safeguarding the child’s wellbeing. Sharing information as soon as possible is vital as it clears the way for early intervention and preventative actions in order to safeguard the children.

Activity 2.6
Explain the importance of safeguarding children and young people:
The importance of safeguarding children and young people cannot be over-emphacised; this is because, children are very vulnerable to all forms of abuse and due to the fact that they are young and inexperienced, they cannot defend themselves. Therefore, having known this, it is our duty to protect them any form of abuse ,bearing in mind that if a child suffers one type of abuse and that abuse is neglected, it may affect that child’ development holistically. Our ability to identify early signs of child abuse will go a long way to protect the child from any serious harm. In conclusion, abused children cannot make a good future generation of our society, therefore, children need to be safeguarded and protected so as to enable them develop properly and holistically, thereby making them useful and confident members of the entire society.
Activity 2.7
Explain the importance of a child or young person-centred approach:
As the name suggests, “Child or young person-centred approach”. This approach to safeguarding ensures that the individual child’s need is at the centre of any decision that relate to his/her life. It involves listening to the child as an individual, thinking together, coaching, sharing ideas, and seeing an individual as unique. According to Children’s Act 2004, “Every Child Matters” Therefore, irrespective of a child’s background or circumstances, this Act makes it mandatory for all settings working with children to support every child to be healthy, enjoy and achieve, stay safe, make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being.

In order to achieve the above mandate, it very important the ‘ Child Centred Approach is used. The reason is that this approach gives children free hand to think, communicate, participate in what matters to them. This approach gives them sense of belonging in decision making that relates to their life. Since this approach encourages communication, it helps the carers to know exactly what the child needs so as to take into account the child’s wishes/needs while planning for the child’s well-being.
Activity 2.8
Explain what is meant by partnership working in the context of safeguarding:
Safeguarding of children involves a lot of activities which cannot be effectively managed by one agency. Therefore, to effectively safeguard and protect the children’s welfare, multi agencies that have different roles and services are involved. To adequately safeguard and promote the welfare of the children, there must be a very good channel of communication and effective partnership between all the agencies and professionals involved in the welfare of the children. For instance, a boy went to the school with bruises all over his body , the school suspected that the child might have been abused, so the school contacted the Social services and when the social worker conducted the initial assessment, they confirmed that the child was really abused, therefore, they called for the help of the police. The police took the case up and investigated it, after investigation, the perpetrators(parent) were summoned for court hearing which resulted in the child being taken into care. In the above scenario, one can see that the school, social service, police and court worked in partnership in order to save the child from a more serious harm.

Activity 2.9
Describe the roles and responsibilities of the different organisations that may be involved when a child or young person has been abused or harmed: There are a lot of different organisations that are involved when a child or young person has been abused or harmed and they perform different roles. These organisations include: The School: This is one of most important organisations for safeguarding the children. This is because they come into contact with them on a daily basis. Therefore they perform the vital role of safeguarding children in the following ways: Provision of policies and procedures that will be followed in order protect children and young persons from harm and abuse.
They also have the responsibility of identifying any concern about a child and act upon these concerns in order to safeguard the child who might be at risk of abuse or harm, referring any concerns to the designated child protection officer within their setting, who in turn would report to social services where necessary
They are responsible of protecting the children from any form of abuse or harm.

They help to meet the health needs of children with medical conditions and provide accurate information on the child’s educational needs.

They have the role of following risk assessment procedure in order to create and maintain a safe learning environment the children. 
They have the responsibility of providing Special Education Need Coordinator (SENCO) whose main duty is to provide help for children with special need in education and their families.

Social Services: This organisation has several roles when it comes to safeguarding the children. Their roles include: Providing support for the children and families that might be at risk of any harm or abuse . They are responsible for organising and carrying out a multiagency child protection plan in order to safeguard childrenThey make enquiries that will help them to decide what action they should take to safeguard or promote the child or young person’s welfare.They act as a principle point of contact for children where there are child protection concerns.They have the sole duty of co-ordinating the assessment of the child or young person’s needs, the parent’s capacity to keep the child safe and the wider family circumstances.

Paediatricians:
These professionals have the following responsibilities when a child has been abused. Examining the children or young people believed to have been abused in order to determine the extent of the harm caused by the abuse.Find out any other medical needs the child/young person might have which are not obvious to the carers and parents.Be able to collate and present evidence in court when abuse and crime is involved in order to safeguard the children.
Police:The police are known for their role of protecting the community and when it comes to the abused children, they still perform a more serious roles which includes:
They investigate all criminal offences committed against children and young people and if a crime has been really committed, they identify the culprits and produce evidence for any criminal proceedings.

They cooperate with social services when an offence against a child or young person has been committed in order to safeguard the child.

If a child is believed to be suffering abuse /harm, in order to save the child, they have authority to break into the premises to ensure that the child is protected immediately without further harm.

They also have the responsibility of ensuring that any investigation about child abuse is handled in most sensitive way
Activity 2.10
Explain why it is important to ensure children and young people are protected from harm within the work setting:
Children are very precious to their parents and carers, therefore, the parents want to be assured that their children are left in a secured environment and with trusted carers, having confidence that their children’s needs will be completely met in all areas of development when they are not there without being betrayed. Therefore, in order for settings to ensure that children and young people protected from harm within the work setting, they perform the following roles:
Safer recruitment procedure. Before, any staff is employed to work with children in a setting, it is a prerequisite to do DBS especially the enhanced one, this is done in order to ensure that the person is suitable and safe to work with children.

Safeguarding and child protection procedures. These outlines policies and step by step procedures put in place by the setting which all the staff must follow in order to safeguard and protect the children.

Whistle blowing policy and procedure.

Risk assessment procedure. This aims at ensuring that those activities, environment and equipment used for teaching and learning are safe and suitable for the children’s age without being detrimental to children’s health and safety
Activity 2.11
Explain policies and procedures that are in place to protect children and young people and adults who work with them:
In any work setting with children, there are a lot of policies and procedures that are usually put in place to protect not only the children and young people but also to protect the adults that are working with them. It is very important for everybody in the setting to follow these policies and procedures in order to ensure that everyone in the setting is protected. These policies and procedure may include:
Safer recruitment procedure. Before, any staff is employed to work with children in a setting, it is a prerequisite to do DBS especially the enhanced one, this is done in order to ensure that the person is suitable and safe to work with children.

Safeguarding and child protection procedures. These outlines policies and step by step procedures put in place by the setting which all the staff must follow in order to safeguard and protect the children.

Whistle blowing policy and procedure.

Risk assessment procedure. This aims at ensuring that those activities, environment and equipment used for teaching and learning are safe and suitable for the children’s age without being detrimental to children’s health and safety
Activity 2.12
What is a whistleblowing process and how does it work in a setting?
Whistle blowing is an act of raising concern or disclosure that relates to suspected wrong doings, abuse or dangers at work setting. Whistle blowing concerns usually relate to the conduct of managers or staff, but they may sometimes relate to the actions of a third party, such as a customer, supplier or service provider. It is also very important to mention that not all complaints are whistle blowing, for it to be whistle blowing, it must be in the public interest and serious and not merely a trivial matter.

In every work setting, there should be a laid down policy and procedure/process which guide whistle blowing. Those policies may include:
Providing a platform which enables employees to raise concerns without any fear of punishment or unfair treatment for disclosing concerns in good faith( May be by allowing the staff to whistle blow anonymously). The policy has to provide a way of handling unprincipled practices and develop a culture of openness, accountability and integrity. Whistle blowing is important in any work setting because it helps the management to be informed at an early stage about acts of misconduct and deal with it before it reaches the crises stage.

If a staff has concern about another staff’s behaviour which may be detrimental to child’s safety and wellbeing, such concern may be made known to child safeguarding and protection officer in the setting following the setting’s whistle blowing policy and procedure.

If the concern is against a fellow staff behaving inappropriately in any form, such concern has to be made known to the manager of the setting( head teacher) if it is school setting.

If the concern is against the manager of the setting, then, the concern will be made to the Local Authority, if it is a school setting. It is very vital to remember that all these concerns must be made known following the setting’s whistle blowing policy and procedure.

Activity 2.13
Explain how practitioners can take steps to protect themselves within their everyday practice in the work setting and on off-site visits:
In every work setting, there should be policies and procedures which all the practitioners must understand and follow in order to protect themselves from abuse, harm and allegations. Those rules may include:
Never be alone with a child or young person in a closed room.

If there is incident or accident when you are in charge, always get witness or witnesses to sign the report.

Whistle blowing policy should allow staff to raise concern without the fear of victimisation or punishment, even if the situation needs the identity of the whistle blower to be revealed, the policy has to handle it in a way that protects the whistle blower, otherwise, people may become afraid of raising concern and the public interest may be at risk.

If there is an allegation, both parties should be given the opportunity to defend themselves and give their versions of the event that happened, they should also be supported equally if they require it.

Practitioners can also protect themselves on off-visits by doing the following:
By carrying out a full risk assessment of the intended visit, according to the Health and Safety at work regulations Act 1999 which requires employers to assess the risks of activities, introduce measures to control these risks and inform employees of these measures.
Getting the parental/carer’s consent before taking the child on any visit and also getting the emergency contact details and small first aid box in case of any emergency or accidents.

Ensuring that the staff / children ratio is within the OFSTED guidance.
Ensuring that there is appropriate insurance cover for the intended trip.

Activity 2.14
Describe the possible signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours that may cause concern in the context of safeguarding:
In the context of safeguarding, there are a lot of possible signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours which act as warning alarm that something is going wrong in the life of a child. All these may go a long way to indicate that a child may be suffering some kind of abuse which may be physical, emotional, sexual and neglect.
Physical Abuse: This type of abuse takes place when a child is aggressively attacked or maltreated in such a way that wounds and bruises are inflicted on the child’s body. It is characterized by the following: Wounds, bruises, burns, grasp marks, finger prints etc. on the child’s body.

Emotional Abuse: This type of abuse happens when a child is maltreated continuously, especially verbally by somebody in such a way that he or she is stressed, scared, upset or feels unloved or worthless. It comes in form of name calling, shouting, humiliating or yelling at child etc. This type of abuse has the following features on a child. Lack of concentration, lack of self-esteem, going backwards instead of forward (regression), being in state of confusion etc.

Sexual Abuse: A child is sexually abused when he or she is touched by someone with the aim of arousing sexual acts. It happens when a child is lured into sexual activities by someone. It can be in form of fondling, touching the child’s genital parts, forced sexual acts, or being stark naked before the children, or showing them images of naked people. This abuse is characterized by the following:
Genital irritation, desire to have sex often times or being afraid of having sex. Attachment disorder in relationships. Inappropriate level of sexual knowledge and use of vulgar words by a child
Vaginal bleeding or discharge.

Neglect: This type of abuse occurs when a child lacks parental care or when parents are so engaged with other things to the extent of not being available for their children or to take care of their health, development and psychological needs. This type of abuse is characterized by the children looking unkempt, worn out, hungry etc.

Activity 2.15
Describe the actions to take if a child or young person alleges harm or abuse in line with policies and procedures of own setting:
Every setting has its own policies and procedures on how to take actions if a child or young person alleges harm or abuse; in my setting the following actions may be taken if a child alleges harm or abuse.

I should not appear shocked but should listen attentively to what the child is saying to me.

I should avoid asking the child any leading questions because it is not my job to investigate.

I should cheer up the child by telling him/her that he/she is not to blame for the abuse they suffered.

To avoid the mistake of making the child feel betrayed, I should let the child know that I have to tell somebody that can help them, I should not make a promise of keeping the information to myself.

I should refer to headteacher or Safeguarding Officer and fill out a concern sheet in detail with the exact words of the child and your observation during the time of disclosure.

Activity 2.16
Explain the rights that children and young people and their carers have in situations where harm or abuse is suspected or alleged:
In the situations where harm or abuse is suspected or alleged, there are some rights which the children, young people and their carers have.

According to The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
All the decisions that affects the child must be made in the best interest of the child.

All the children, regardless of their race, their parent’s race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth etc., should be treated equally.

The children have the right to be heard when they give their opinions, especially while making decisions that affect them.

They have the right to be protected from harm, exploitation, violence, abuse neglect and maltreatment.

Children have right to family life, children should not be taken away from their parents forcefully, unless it is in the best interest of the child where there is evidence of abuse, neglect and bullying.

The parents and carers have the right to children’s services and help that are available for proper upbringing of the children. They have right to be informed of what is being said and to contribute their own views and opinions, however if the child or young person is suffering significant harm then the parents or carers are not guaranteed
Activity 2.17
Explain different types of bullying and the potential effects on children and young people:
Bullying is a type of unwanted behaviour exerted by a person or group of persons, usually repeated over a period of time with intention of hurting another person or group of persons. It may be physical, emotional or cyber.

PHYSICAL BULLYING: This involves any unwanted contact with a person  with aim of hurting that person’s body or possession . It can be in form of hitting, kicking, pinching, spitting, tripping/pushing, taking or breaking someone’s things, making mean or rude hand gestures etc. The potential effect of physical bullying can sometimes be overwhelming, it can cause the child to feel disconnected from schools, hate school, lower academic performances, have low self- esteem, depression, anxiety, feeling of loneliness and isolation, sometimes being aggressive, etc.

EMOTIONAL BULLYING: This type of bullying is just like emotional abuse which happens when a child is maltreated continuously, especially verbally by somebody in such a way that he or she is stressed, scared, upset or feels unloved or worthless. It comes in form of name calling, shouting, humiliating or yelling at child etc. The potential effects on the child include the following:
The child starts blaming himself/herself.Depression may set inSelf harming or feeling suicidal Feeling or being physically ill.. Induce fear/scared.Lack confidence (shyness). Not wanting to go to out (clingy to people that are close to them).  A child becomes withdrawn and isolated.

CYBER BULLYING:
This is any form bullying that takes place online through information and communication technology like smart phones and tablets. It may come in form of abusive texts and messages, spreading fake rumours about an individual, using another person’s identity to post vicious materials to others, sending threatening messages to somebody, etc. Its potential effects on the children may include:
Depression and anxiety, feeling of sadness and loneliness, loss of interest in the activities they used to enjoy, self harming or feeling suicidal etc.

Activity 2.18
Outline the policies and procedures that should be followed in response to concerns or evidence of bullying and explain the reasons why they are in place:
Every setting that works with children has the responsibility of safeguarding and protecting the children from abuse and harm. Bullying can be seen as a kind of abuse, therefore, in order to safe guard the children from it, each setting puts in place anti bullying policies and procedures that may be followed if there is concerns or evidence of bullying. Those policies and procedures may include:
Interviewing the child so as to know exactly what happened, where it happened, who is involved, how long it has been happening etc. This has to be done according the setting’s policy and procedure.

Reassuring the victim in order to make him feel safe and comfortable, if there is further concern, a referral can be arranged to see a safeguarding officer.

After, investigation and there seems to be evidence of bullying, the perpetrator should be dealt with according to the setting’s disciplinary procedures. This may include the involvement of parents, where appropriate, to discuss the issues and written records must be kept of all stages in this procedure.

Anti bullying policies and procedures are put in place by settings for the following reasons:
To make the prospective victim safe.
To stop the bullying and change the bully’s behaviour.
To make clear to every learner that bullying is unacceptable.

To promote positive behaviours, encourage achievement and to teach acceptance, understanding and tolerance of individual differences.

Activity 2.19
Explain how to support a child or young person and/or their family when bullying is suspected or alleged
Bullying can be very distressing for a child, young person and their parents. Therefore, if bullying is suspected or alleged, it is very important that it is dealt with seriously so that it does not continue to happen again. Depending on the school bullying policy and procedure, the appropriate staff can support the bullied child and his family in the following ways:
Interview and listen to the bullied child in order to know what has been happening, where it has been happening, how long it has been going on, who is involved and witnesses if any, how it has been affecting the child and whether anybody has been told about the bullying.

After this interview, there could be a sort of reassurance in order to make the child feel comfortable by letting him know that it is not his fault and nobody deserves to be bullied.
The child and his parents may be asked come back next time when you can talk about it in more detail with explanation that you are taking the problem seriously and that you will investigate, report back to them within an agreed timescale and that you will either use sanctions like a warning or detention for minor misbehaviours or that in serious cases you will refer the complaint to the senior management team who have the power to temporarily or permanently exclude.

Activity 2.20
Explain how to support children and young people’s self-confidence and self-esteem:
Self-confidence and self-esteem are very important for one to achieve successful and fulfilled life. Therefore , there are a number of things which will help to support children and young people’s self confidence and self esteem. Those things may include:
Train the child to believe in himself. Every child is unique in the way he/she lives life, so it is important that each child is encouraged to develop confidence at his individual pace without comparing the child with another child. Praise them for what they do well and for the mistakes they do, correct them in a loving way and advise them on how to improve.

Encourage the child to stay away from any negativity and embrace positivity. Advise the child to stay away from anybody that usually puts him down and shreds his confidence. Encourage the child to always be positive, even when there seems to be no light at the end of the tunnel, there could still be a positive turn around, teach them to avoid focusing on the problems in their life and instead begin to focus on solutions and making positive changes.

Teach the child never to give up or accept defeat, let them know that failure is not the end of life because as long as there is life , there is hope. Let them know that when they accept negative thoughts or defeat running in their minds, they are simply creating a self fulfilling prophecy. You are simply becoming what you are preaching inside your head, and that’s not good. Tell the child next time he/she hear that negativity in his/her head, let him switch it immediately to a positive affirmation and keep it up until self-confidence is boosted.
Encourage the child to look at the person he is speaking to, not at his shoes–keeping eye contact shows confidence. Teach him to speak slowly. Research has proved that those who take the time to speak slowly and clearly feel more self-confidence and appear more self-confident to others
Activity 2.21
Analyse the importance of supporting resilience in children and young people:
Life is full of ups and downs and we as adults could not always be available for our children wherever they are in life, sometimes they are out of our sight and sometimes , we simply could not offer meaningful solutions to their challenges of life, therefore, it is very important to inculcate into them the spirit of resilience which will enable them to be independent of anybody and be able to stand and conquer the life’s challenges without yielding to them. Adults can inculcate resilience in children by doing the following:
Develop parental bond with your child. Research has shown that children which are securely attached to their parents have better emotional development and tend to build a better relationship with other people later in life. Having a loving, caring and supportive family help the children to develop self confidence, self esteem and resilience needed to tackle life’s challenges without yielding to it.

By allowing the children to try new things. Life is full of trials and errors, when children are allowed to try new activities, things may or may not work to plan but the way we handle the outcome goes a long way to either encourage or discourage them to try in future. If we correct with love and be able to differentiate between our disapproval of the child’s behaviour and the child himself, praising and encouraging the child where he does well, then the child will feel liked ,loved and be more resilient in life. But if we shout at the child for making mistake and say all sorts of negative things about the child, he will be afraid to try again as he does not want to be told off and thereby suppressing resilience in the child’s life.

Activity 2.22
Explain why it is important to work with the child or young person to ensure they have strategies to protect themselves and make decisions about safety:
Children’s safety and protection is paramount in any setting that is working with children, therefore it is important that adults working with children should ensure that they put in place and teach the children strategies to protect themselves and make decisions about safety. Those strategies may include:
Giving the children effective education on sex and relationship and also explaining to them the effect of premarital sexual relationship and knowledge of this will help them to stay safe until the right time when they are matured enough to go into such relationship without regret.

Teaching them how to stay safe online( what to do and what not to do while online) will help to save them from being victims of fraudulent act and dangers associated with using internet
Teach them that their body belongs only to them, therefore, nobody has right to touch them inappropriately, especially in secret. Teach them that when somebody touches them in an unacceptable manner or lures them out of sight, they should yell or run away and tell any adult which they trust and not to keep it secret.

Teach them never to follow any stranger that may try to lure them out of sight because such stranger may be up to nothing good for them.

Teach them not to keep secret of any bullying, dangers or harm done to them, they should let the incident be known to a trusted adult.

Activity 2.23
Explain ways of empowering children and young people to make positive and informed choices that support their well-being and safety:
Children are the future generation, and empowering them to make positive and informed choices that support their well-being and safety are very important. There are many ways in which the adults can empower them. Those ways may include :
Encourage and respect their individual differences. Every child is different and learns differently, therefore it is very important to empower them by encouraging them not compare themselves with others, rather encourage them to be proud of their uniqueness and this will help to bring out the best in them instead of making them to shy away which may lead to loss of self esteem.

Teaching the children from early stage what is acceptable and what is not acceptable will help to mould their characters in a positive direction, it will help them to grow into adults that are useful to themselves and entire society which they belong to. “Bad communication, they said, corrupts good manners” therefore it is important that we explain to children the negative effects of keeping bad friends and encourage them to surround themselves with good friends that will help them to achieve their best potentials.

A behaviour that is rewarded has the tendency of being repeated, therefore, reinforcing the children by rewarding their good behaviours will encourage them to repeat the behaviour for which they are rewarded. Frequent scolding of a child when the child misbehaves without any positive reinforcement when he does good puts the child into confusion and reduces his self esteem. So to empower them, while correcting them when they misbehave, we should be on the lookout for any good behaviour they exert and positively reinforce such behaviours.

Teaching them what to do and what not to do when online or when using the phones will empower them to stay safe and reduce their vulnerability to fraud, theft and harm.

Activity 2.24
Explain the risks and possible consequences for children and young people of being online and using a mobile phone:
Using mobile phones can be of immense help for parents and carers to communicate with their children and be able to know their where about when they are at work or somewhere else, likewise, internet has also proved to be wonderful educational resource; but if the children are left on their own to use these technologies without adequate censorship, they can pose risk and negative consequences to the children and young people. Those risks and consequences to the children may include:
Children are tricked into giving out their personal details like their names, date of birth, passwords, phone numbers etc., and when these details are accidentally given to fraudsters they can be used for identity theft.
When children are allowed to use internet on their own, they are exposed to cyber bullying where they are sent all kinds of terrible texts and e-mails, abusive messages and rumours etc. The consequences of this cyber bullying can sometimes be over whelming to children and young people because it gives them low self esteem and in worst case scenario, it makes them to commit suicide.

Children may inadvertently download a corrupt or virus infected files or open an infected spam mail and when this happens, it may cause damage to the computer causing the computer to be virus infected.

When children use mobile phones in the public, especially expensive smart ones, they make themselves vulnerable to theft, attack or harm.

Activity 2.25
Describe ways of reducing risk to children and young people from:
Social Networking
Internet use
Buying online
Using a mobile phone
In order to reduce risk to children and young people from Social Netwoking, Internet use, buying online and using a mobile phone, there are a number of things that has to be done.

To reduce Social Networking and internet risk, parents and carers should play a vital role in educating their children in order for them to be aware of risks that is involved in using this technology inappropriately . They should teach them never to give out their correct personal details which may include; names, address, phone numbers , dates of birth etc. They should clearly teach them how to stay safe online by teaching them how to cut off any communication with any stranger they might meet online.

Parents, carers and teachers can also help to reduce social networking risk for children and young people by installing some protection software( parental control) which will enable them to monitor the websites that their children visit and thereby making it a little bit difficult for the children to go to the sites that may harm them.

The children should be taught never to download anything from any unknown and insecure sites as they could contain viruses.

To reduce risk while buying online, parents and carers have roles to play. When people buy things online, there is risk of identity fraud if the details go to a wrong person., therefore to avoid this risk. Parents should teach their children how to know a secured site before buying. For instance, a secured website must start with “hppts://”, they should be taught how to use a secured payment system like PAYPAL thereby avoid giving their bank account details directly to online sellers. They should be taught how to make a secured password that will be difficult to guess. For instance, making a password by combining upper case and lower case letters with numbers and sometimes changing the password if it has been used for a long time. All when the children are aware of them , it will help to reduce risk when buying online.
To reduce risk while using mobile phones, parents and carers are responsible to teach their children the importance of staying safe while using their phones. They should teach them not to show off their phones when they are in the public as showing off may attract theft which might also make them vulnerable to attack. They should be taught not to give their phone numbers to the strangers and if possible block them from accessing some dangerous websites like you tube, facebook, etc via their phones.