Marshall Plan

Marshall Plan (April 3, 1948)
The Marshall Plan was an American Aid program to help Europe. This plan gave 13 billion to aid and provide economic support to rebuild Europe after World War II. The outcome of the Marshall Plan was the United States helping Europe in the quick recovery as well as the beginning of the US keeping constant involvement of the US.

First Arab-Israeli War (May 15, 1948 – March 10, 1949)
The First Arab-Israeli War was fought by Military coalition of Arab states, and Israel. Although this war was fought over the control of Palestine, the conflict is just one example of the hate Israelites and the Arabs have for one another. While the outcome of the war was Israel winning, these two people groups continue to fight one another to this day.

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Berlin Air Lift (June 24, 1948 – May 12, 1949)
The Berlin Airlift was a military operation to airdrop food into West Berlin. This military operation was because of East Germany, which was surrounded by the Berlin Wall, had its supply routes cut off. Although this was a very serious event, this was effectively another event of the cold war. The US and west European nations continued to supply Berlin.

Korean War (June 25, 1950 – July 27, 1953)
The Korean War was a bloody conflict fought by the North and South Koreans respectively from between June 25, 1950 – July 27, 1953. This conflict occurred because communist North Korea attempted to invade South Korea, and while this may seem unrelated to the united states, it was effectively just another chapter in the cold war that the US and USSR were currently in. While the Korean war ended in an Armistice, the two countries continue to argue to this day because of varying opinions.

Suez War (October 29, 1956 – November 7, 1956)
While the First Arab-Israeli War ended, the Suez War can be considered the Second Arab-Israeli War, which was fought between the Arabs, Israelites, the French, and Britain. This war was fought to take back Western control of Suez Canal and to get rid of the Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser. Although the plan went into effect, the US, UN, and USSR forced France and Britain to retract, eventually ending in Israel to retract, leaving the Suez Canal to Egypt.

Great Leap Forward (1958 – 1961)
The Great Leap Forward was a Social and Economic Campaign lead by the People’s Republic of China (communist). Although China was always agricultural, this push led by Chairman Mao Zedong was meant to make China into a Socialist Society via collectivization and industrialized ways. Although intended to transform China, it ended in a decreased population, the starvation and death of a large portion of Chinas people, and the challenging of Mao Zedong’s position, due to his reforms poor work arrangements and amount of jobs available.
Cuban Revolution (July 26, 1953 – January 1, 1959)
The Cuban Revolution was a resistance force lead by Fidel Castro against Fulgencio Batist and his authoritarian government. This revolution is important because it lead Cuba to aid the Soviet Union, as well as helping to add to the Cold Wars time length and the consequences surrounding it. In the end, Fidel Castro succeeded in taking over Cuba and starting a communist government in place of the authoritarian predecessor.
Vietnam War (1954-1975)
The Vietnam War was fought between North and South Vietnam in 1954 – 1975. This conflict was because of the North Vietnamese trying to unite the country under one communist rule, by taking control of south Korea. Although this conflict could have remained within country and out of Western intervention, the US agreed to aid the South Vietnamese to stop the flow of communism. Although the North Vietnamese eventually won and united the country under communist rule, the country suffered horrible casualties, along with American ones, and an economic crash that would last for years.

Berlin Wall (August 13, 1961 – October 14, 1989)
The Berlin Wall was a physically wall that divided Berlin. It was constructed by The German democratic republic to cut off the people in their area of Berlin from fascist and to keep the will of the people in creating a socialist environment/state in East Germany, as well as blocking out foreign concepts and ideologies that conflicted with the socialist German population. Although this wall stuck around for years, it eventually came to a crash in 1989 by the people themselves.

Cuban Missile Crisis (October 14, 1962 – October 28, 1962)
The Cuban Missile Crisis was a conflict between the US and Cuba/Soviet Union, in which Cuba and the Soviet Union threatened the US with nuclear warheads, this was equally shared by the US. This thirteen-day standoff was the closest the Cold War got to a full blown nuclear war. Although this disagreement never reached war, it’s an important event because it shows how quickly war can begin. While the outcome was a standstill, it fed into the length of the Cold War’s duration.

Moon Landing (July 20, 1969)
The Moon Landing represented the US’s will and power to out succeed any other nation. This landing was also a stab at the Soviets who had accomplished going into space first and was a jab essentially in the Cold War showing we were a better nation. Although the outcome of this is the US fueling the Cold War, it also shows how advanced our country is, and the determination of the American people as a whole.

SALT (November 1969 – 1979)
Salt was effectively several conferences between the US and the Soviet Union in order to limit arms and to help end the Cold War (a tension reliever effectively). While nothing effectively came from this, it showed the two sides attempting to end the conflict in some manor or another and helped contribute to the eventual end of the Cold War. SALT was not ratified by either side but showed a promising future for the end of the Cold War.

Ping Pong Diplomacy (April 6-17, 1971)
Ping Pong Diplomacy was when the US went to China to play ping pong in order to create a friendship and to release tension between the two countries by playing a sport they both loved. This was also the first time a US president went to China while president (Richard Nixon). Although a simple game, this game of ping pong ended in reduced tensions between the US and China, ultimately helping us gain another ally.

OPEC (September 10-14, 1960)
OPEC is the organization of twelve countries that control most of the worlds oil exports. This organization essentially controls how much oil each country gets, and the oils price per gallon. Although a relatively simple fact, this aided in the oil crisis. Although a singular organization, it controls much of the world’s oil industry.

Bangladesh Liberation War (March 26, 1971 – December 16, 1971)
The Bangladesh Liberation War was a revolution pursued by the Bengali nationalist. This happened after the Pakistani military carried out the eliminations of anyone that had anything to do with nationalism, or anyone that held a weapon. While this was a bloody battle, the Bengali’s where able to defeat the Pakistani army, forcing West Pakistan to surrender to the Bengali.

Oil Crisis (October 1973 – March 1974)
The Oil Crisis of 1973 was an oil embargo aimed at countries that supported Israel’s Yom Kippur War. This Oil Crisis was the first-time oil reached such astounding prices because of one organization. Although a simple embargo, this had a devastating effect on the rest of the worlds economies because of the influx in prices. While these economies took a hit from the oil embargo, they eventually bounced back from the hit.
Yom Kippur War (October 6, 1973 – October 25, 1973)
The Yom Kippur War was a war fought between Israel against Egypt and Syria in Sinai and the Golan Heights. This happened on Yom Kippur which is a Jewish holiday, and during this holiday Egypt and Syria took Sinai and the Golan Heights. Although this was a very effective attack, it was short-lived at best because of Israel’s effective counterattack that lasted a mere three days to reclaim the land lost. Along with this reclamation of land, Israel also launched a four-day counter offensive that nearly reached the heart of Syria, forcing the two countries to back down. While this war only lasted about a week, it shows Israel’s resilience and strength as a country.

Islamic Revolution in Iran (January 7, 1978 – February 11, 1979)
The Islamic Revolution was essentially an overthrowing of the previous government which had lasted 2,500 years (Persian Monarchy). While most right winged people in the country disagreed with this, it was the Islamic extremist and leftist that started the revolution along with their leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. While the intent of the revolution was good, a republic that allowed the people to have a voice, its execution was poor. The overall outcome was a success.

Iran Hostage Crisis (November 4, 1979 – January 21, 1981)
The Iran Hostage Crisis was when Islamic extremist students raided an American embassy taking 52 Americans hostage. This happened a day before president Ronald Reagan was inaugurated. Although this appeared to come from nowhere, this event occurred because of growing tensions and because of an American shift in power. Although a terrible event, the hostages were released January 21, 1981.

Formation of Zaire (1971)
The Formation of Zaire was a renaming of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This happened because of the predecessor president, Sese Seku Mubutu. Although renamed, it was returned to The Democratic Republic of the Congo after Laurent Kabila, a general, took control of the country.

Brezhnev Doctrine (May 29, 1972)
The Brezhnev Doctrine basically allowed and affirmed Soviet Union aid to communist countries. This bill was passed by Leonid Brezhnev. While this doctrine may seem harmless, it was meant to strengthen communism as well as fuel added to the cold war.

Golda Meir (March 17, 1969 – June 3, 1974)
Golda Meir was a Prime Minister of Israel, fourth to be precise. This woman has been the only woman to hold such a title in Israel. Although on the fourth prime minister, she aided greatly in establishing Israel. While she had many accomplishments, her best one was the aid in creating Israel.

Margret Thatcher (1979 – 1990)
Margret Thatcher was the Prime Minister of the UK from 1979-1990. This incredible woman was the first woman prime minister in the UK. Although the people weren’t receptive at first, she was able to reduce the trade union power, cut welfare programs, and aid several industries. All in all, she aided work conditions, and aided in economic stability in her nation.

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (December 25, 1979 – February 15, 1989)
The soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a military operation lead by Soviet Russia to gain large parts of Afghanistan. This operation was meet with resistance by an anticommunist group called Maoist that were attempting to get rid of the communist government, this action was backed by the US. Although this was a dummy Cold War, the damages and loss of life where huge, and while these losses terrible, lead to the over through of the communist government.

Mujahideen (1979 – 1989)
The Mujahideen were a fighting group that went against soviet troops in the soviet war in Afghanistan. This group mostly occurred because of the soviet’s invasion, and warlords in Afghanistan lead these people. In the end, these troops aided in pushing out the soviet troops and the communist government that was attempted to be implemented.

Indira Gandhi (January 14, 1980 – October 31, 1984)
Indira Gandhi was the first woman prime minister in India. As prime minister, she went to war with Pakistan to aid the independence movement going on there. This lead to an Indian victory and the eventual formation of Bangladesh. While Indira Gandhi was a great military leader, she was also a great peace advocate for people groups and her country. Although this great woman was an even better leader, her eventual assassination ended the years of work towards peace she tried to create.

Lech Walesa (1980 – 1995)
Lech Walesa was the president of Poland form 1990 – 1995. This president helped to create the first independent trade union in communist Poland. Although a simple act, he helped million of polish workers and aided in decommunizing his country, this won him a Nobel Peace Prize.

Iran-Iraq War (September 22, 1980 – August 20, 1988)
The Iran-Iraq War was fought between Iran and Iraq because of a waterway dispute. The water in question was the Shatt Al-Arab. Saddam Hussein attempted to claim this waterway with force. Although this bloody war ensued from a waterway, Saddam Hussein was eventually pushed back, and was forced to surrender.

Grenada Invasion (October 25, 1983 – December 15, 1983)
The invasion of Grenada occurred because President Reagan believed the Marxist government of the country to be a threat to America and the 1000 Americans inhabiting the country at the time. This conflict was between the US and the Caribbean Island of Grenada. Although a short-lived conflict, the US was able to change and overthrow the government of Grenada.

Mikhail Gorbachev (1985 – 1991)
Mikhail Gorbachev was a soviet politician and the eight leader of the Soviet Union (the last leader at that). Although he was the leader of the Soviet Union, he became the first president of Russia and helped to disarm Russia’s nuclear capabilities, as well as easing tension between the US. Effectively, Gorbachev ended the cold war and promoted peace. This leader essentially ended communism in Europe.

First Intifada (December 8, 1987 – September 13, 1993)
The First Intifada was a Palestine uprising on West Bank Gaza, which Israel controlled at the time. This war between Israel and Palestine occurred because of Israel’s harsh military control of the area. Although brutal, the conflict ended after the signing of the Oslo accords.

Tiananmen Square Massacre (June 4, 1989)
The Tiananmen Square Massacre was a slaughter of pro-democracy protesters via Chinese troops. This revolt by the military was meant to instill fear and to keep the people oppressed as a way to stay in control. While the protest was mostly peaceful, the military was not, killing thousands of students and arresting thousands more, resulting in the governments control to continue, as well as the US’s involvement.

Collapse of Berlin Wall (November 9, 1989)
The Collapse of the Berlin Wall represents the ending of the Cold War in a way, because it shows the peoples unrest, as well as the countries lessening tension/strain. Due to East Germany’s distress, Reagan made a speech targeted to give the people the will and strength to tear the wall down. While a wall being torn down is nothing new, this wall represents the Cold War as a whole, and its coming down representing the fall of the Cold War.

Apartheid (1948 – 1991)
Apartheid was a segregation law in South Africa. This white supremacist law encouraged racial segregation and repression in order to benefit the white population in South Africa, which was a minority. Although a terrible law, negotiations ended the suppression in 1993.

Persian Gulf War (1990 – 1991)
The Persian Gulf War was a war fought by Kuwait, the US, France, Saudi Arabia, UK, and Iraq over Iraq invading Kuwait. Although a victory on the US, UK, and French side of things, Hussein’s forces still controlled much of the country from the shadows, smothering uprisings that opposed them.

Black Hawk Down (October 3, 1993 – October 4, 1993)
Black Hawk Down was an event in Somalia in which Somalian terrorist shot down a US military helicopter. This event occurred because terrorist actions. This tragic event left several military soldiers dead, and more unrest in the country of Somalia.

Nelson Mandela (May 10, 1994 – June 16, 1999)
Nelson Mandela was an anti-apartheid, and the first president of South Africa. This president pushed for human rights and was able to completely get rid of Apartheid. Although Nelson Mandela was old for the position, he was able to give more human rights and peace within his country than anyone else at the time.

Rwanda Genocide (1994 – 1994)
The Rwanda Genocide was the genocide of the Tuts. People in Rwanda by the government itself. This extermination of the Tuts people in Rwanda was caused by previous tension between the Hutu and Tuts. Although nothing happened at first, the Hutus took over the Rwandan Government and ordered the extermination of the tuts. After this terrible event, a coalition government was established an provided relief to the turmoil the country was in.

Balkan Genocide (1995)
The Balkan Genocide was an ethnic cleansing during the Bosnian war. This genocide was due to the death of President Josip Broz Tito, as well as fights for ethnic independence which was smothered by Serbian Forces. This ended in thousands of un necessary deaths.

Congo Civil War (August 2, 1998 – July 18, 2003)
The Congo civil war was fought between the Kabila and Rwandans. This was due to previous disputes that boiled to a point of war. This started when Rwandans attacked a base in the Congo controlled by Kibila. While millions of deaths aren’t justified, the Congo liberation was completed in July 18, 2003.

Taliban (October 10, 1994 – current)
The Taliban is a radical Sunni Muslim group in Afghanistan. Although a terrorist group now, they were originally a rebel group against the soviet invasion in 1979. While this group wasn’t originally hostile, they now commit various acts of terrorism ranging from executions to suicide bombers. This leads the US to actively engage to eliminate the threat.

Al-Qaida (1988 – current)
Al-Qaida is a Sunni Islamic group that formed during the soviet invasion of Afghanistan. This organizations goal is to destroy the US’s presence in Saudi Arabia and to seize control of the country again. This Islamic extremist group was part of 9-11 and has brought terrorism and pain to the US as well as the whole world because of its actions.

9-11 (September 11, 2001)
9-11 was an act of terrorism carried out by Al-Qaida in which 3 passengers hijacked the planes going to New York. At 8:19 the hijacking begins and at 5:20 pm both towers are destroyed, only one being evacuated before destroyed. This act of terrorism leads the US to actively engage and destroy Al-Qaida.

Global War on Terror (September 11, 2001)
The global war on terror is a metaphorical war proposed by president George W. Bush after the terrorist attacks of 9-11 occurred. This lead to the US actively seeking to destroy terrorism to protect the people of the world. All in all, the war on terrorism effectively has helped the world to become a safer place due to targeting potential threats and threats in action.

Darfur Crisis (February 26, 2003 – Present)
The Darfur Crisis is a conflict lead by the Sudan Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement Rebel groups against the Sudan government. This fighting began because these groups felt that Sudan was oppressing non-Arab populations. After they began, the Sudan government killed hundreds of thousands of non-Arabs, calling it an ethnic cleaning. Although started in 2003, this horrible event continues today even with the former president Omar Al-Bashia out of office.

Operation Iraqi Freedom (March 2003 – December 18, 2011)
Operation Iraqi Freedom Was a military conflict in the 2000’s between the US and Iraq. This military operation’s goal was to overthrow Saddam Hussein and his government. One reason for the overthrow of him and his government was because of his attempted genocide of the Kurds in southern Iraq in 1988. Another reason was his acts of terrorism on the world and lack of punishment he received. Although this battle was long and brutal, the US succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein and his government.

Gaza War (December 27, 2008 – January 18, 2009)
The Gaza War was a military operation lead by Israel against the Palestine’s to prevent and stop Hamas rocket attacks on Southern Israel. This conflict was due to arms smuggling and rocket fire, however religious and ethnic factors played a role due to the countries centuries of conflict. While this conflict lasted several weeks, the Israelites military successfully cleared the Gaza Strip and stopped rocket fire.

Isis (1999 – Current)
Isis is a Jihad terrorist group found in most of the middle east. This terrorist group formed in response to the US’s toppling of Saddam Hussein and his government. Although this terrorist group started from essentially nothing, they have continued to grow and spread terrorism across the world as well as committing horrible acts as they go. Although we fight them to this day, no resolve looks to be in the near future.

Arab Spring (December 18, 2010 – December 2012)
The Arab Spring was a string of violent and nonviolent protest in North Africa and the middle east. This string of protest was due to dictatorships and terrorist groups in control at the time, and to help the people gain freedom and human rights. Although these protests did aid in rights, terrorist group still exist in those countries today.

Dameron Leaving (May 25, 2018)
Dameron is an honors world history teacher. Although his class has been difficult at times and more frustrating than not at others, he has been the best teacher for history I’ve had thus far. Along with his witty sense of humor and his relatable personality, he is able to teach his material in a fun and interesting way making me feel as though I’ve come out of the class learning something. Although your teaching career is coming to an end, the lives you’ve touched and students you’ve taught will always remember you. We love you Dameron, PS Roxane says shell miss you.