Indigenous species of chicken are contemplated as the source of national capital and strategic reservoir in a country

Indigenous species of chicken are contemplated as the source of national capital and strategic reservoir in a country. They are the basic genetic material for a breeding program in their habitat. In the face of future natural challenges, indigenous breeds of chicken could be of great importance for food security. They are highly attached to cultural values, geographical origins and adapted to local environments 15. Indigenous breeds are more resistant to disease 21 and they are more capable of utilizing low quality feeds. Indigenous chickens contain genes and alleles relevant to adaptation in specific environmental conditions and native breeding purpose. So, maintaining a native breed is very essential to permit genetic adaptation of populations to the unpredicted breeding requirement in the future and as a source of research material for further development 1. Korean native chicken (KNC) can be considered as a wealth genetic resource with excellent unique qualities of meat and a low susceptible to disease for the poultry industry in the Korean peninsula. The KNC almost become extinct due to the second world war, Korean war and expeditious industrialization in Korea 10. A KNC conservation program was launched in 1994 to restore the Korean local chicken breeds and the advancement of superior commercial KNC production and distribution by the National Institute of Animal Science, Republic of Korea. Trends in genetic diversity observed within and among breeds is a basic step for developing successful genetic conservation strategies for livestock species. Conservation of animal genetic resources needs an investigation of trends and major causes of loss of diversity. Improvement of inbreeding intensity that negatively influenced genetic diversity status and economics of some traits 22. Genetic diversity in chickens is required to shun inbreeding in the chicken population. For this reasons, more research needs to evaluate the level of inbreeding and genetic diversity loss in populations 11, 17, 22 and to find out the importance of genomic analysis for effective management in small and imperil populations 19. Genetic diversity has marvellous economic and environmental benefits allowing for undertaking the genetic improvement of animals for economically important traits and facilitating adaptation to changing production systems. The topic of loss of animal genetic diversity become essential and needs an immediate attention to conserve the available animal genetic resources 17. The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity in eight pure lines of Korean native chicken.