IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC BANKING ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Assessment 2

IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC BANKING
ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Assessment 2: Final Dissertation
Subject Code: BSS007-3
UNIVERSITY OF BEDFORDSHIRE
BA (HONS) BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (TOP UP)

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Prepared by: D.G.Charith Sachindra
Student ID number: 1724027

1.0 Title ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 02
2.0 introduction …………………………………………………………………………….02
2.1 Electronic banking………………………………………………………………………… 02
2.2 Types of e-banking…………………………………………………………………………03
2.3 Customer satisfaction……………………………………………………………………. 04
2.4 Research objectives……………………………………………………………………. 04
2.5 Research aim……………………………………………………………………………. 05
2.6 Research questions……………………………………………………………………. 05
3.0 Literature review
3.1 RQ1 – What are the Factors Affecting Adoption of Electronic Banking? …………. 06
3.2 RQ2 – What are the factor(s) influencing for customer satisfaction? ………………. 09
3.3 RQ3 -. What is the relationship between electronic banking service qualities 12
and customer satisfaction
4.0 Methodology…………………………………………………………………………..17
4.1 Research design………………………………………………………………………17
4.2 Philosophy……………………………………………………………………………..17
4.3 Approach……………………………………………………………………………….17
4.4 Method……………………………………………………………………………… 18
4.5 Data collection………………………………………………………………………..18

5.0 Data analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………..19
5.1 Quantitative data analysis ……………………………………………………….19
5.2 Pareto analysis…………………………………………………………………….. 24
5.3 Qualitative data analysis………………………………………………………….. 25
5.4 Research values ……………………………………………………………….. 25
5.5 Research Findings………………………………………………………………… 25
5.6 Leads for the research……………………………………………………………..26
5.7 Research results…………………………………………………………………. .26

6.0 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………… 26
6.1 Limitation of the Study………………………………………………………… 27
6.2 Recommendation for Future Research………………………………………. 27
6.3 References…………………………………………………………………….. 28

1.0 TITLE
Impact of electronic banking on customer satisfaction
Keywords: Electronic banking; Customers’ satisfaction, electronic banking; banking industry.

2.0 INTRODUCTION

An introduction to the thesis is presented in this chapter. The chapter begins with the introduction of the concept of electronic banking and its impact on customer satisfaction. E-banking is making a tremendous impact upon service companies in general and the financial services sector is no exception. The application of information and communication technology concepts, techniques, policies and implementation strategies to banking services has become a subject of fundamentals importance and concerns to all banks and indeed a prerequisite for local and global competitiveness in banking industry (G and A, 2016). As a result of this technological improvement business environment in financial sector is extremely dynamic and experience rapid changes and demands banks to serve their customer electronically.

2.1 electronic banking
The concept of electronic banking has been defined in many ways; Daniel defines electronic banking as the delivery of banks’ information and services by banks to customers via different delivery plat forms that can be used with different terminal devices such as personal computers and mobile phone with browser or desktop software, telephone or digital television (Elizabeth, 2000)

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2.2 Types of e-banking
There are many electronic banking delivery channels to provide banking service to customers. Among them ATM, POS, mobile banking and internet banking are the mostly used type of e-banking.

ATM: Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is a machine where cash withdrawal can be made over the machine without going in to the banking hall. It also sells recharge cards and transfer funds; it can be accessed 24 hours/7 days with account balance enquiry (Kadir, Rahmani and Masinaei, 2011), (G and A, 2016 page 5 of 18).

POS: Point of sale (POS) also sometimes referred to as point of purchase (POP) or checkout is the location where a transaction occurs (G and A, 2016).

Internet banking: With the rapid and extensive increase in technology, innovation and telecommunications, new distribution channels in the financial sector are coming up rapidly, in numbers as well as in form, from ATMs, telephone banking, with Internet Banking being one of the latest in the chain of technological wonders. According to (Firdous, 2017), Internet Banking was thought to signal a revolution in banking distribution.

Mobile banking: Mobile banking is a word used for performing balance checks, account transactions, payments, credit applications and other banking transactions through a mobile device such as a mobile phone or Personal Digital Assistant (PDA).

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2.3 Customer satisfaction
Many researchers have looked into the importance of customer satisfaction. According to (Hansemark and Albinsson 2004), (Mohsan and Nawaz, 2011) satisfaction is an overall customer attitude towards a service provider, or an emotional reaction to the difference between what customers anticipate and what they receive, regarding the fulfillment of some need, goal or desire. Customer satisfaction is considered to be one of the most important competitive factors and as the best indicator of a company’s profitability.

2.4 research objectives
The main objective of the study is to determine among which variables contributes to Adoption of E-banking and customer satisfaction. The specific purposes of this study are as follows

– To determine the adoption of e-banking factors in the banking industry.

– To determine the adaption of customer satisfaction in the banking industry.

– To examine the relationship between electronic banking service quality and customer
Satisfaction

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2.5 Research aim
The aim of this study is to expand the growing research in the field of services quality affect the customer satisfaction to the banking institution. Therefore we keen to determine which dimension of services quality in the bank should emphasize in order to increase the bank customer satisfaction.

2.6 Research questions

RQ1 – what are the Factors Affecting Adoption of Electronic Banking?
RQ2 – What are the factor(s) influencing for customer satisfaction?
RQ3 -. What is the relationship between electronic banking service quality and customer satisfaction?

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3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Objective of this chapter is to review related literature focusing towards the research aim and objectives. The lists of various secondary data sources that have been critically evaluated against research questions are as below. This chapter attempts to provide the review of previous researches that related to this research topic which is the relationship between service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction.

3.1 RQ1 – Possible factors influencing electronic banking.

Security perception (assurance)
Security is one of the very important factors in determining the decision of consumers to use Internet banking. According to the (Belanger, Hiller and Smith, 2002) Two problems with existing e-commerce include the extent to which privacy and security issues are thought as distinct, and the lack of understanding of how they are related. As well as security comprises of three categories: reliability, safety, and privacy. Consumers’ concerns about security, which affect from the use of an open public network, have been accent as the most important factor challenge the adoption and use of internet banking (Belanger, Hiller and Smith, 2002), (Jarvenpaa, Tractinsky and Vitale, 2000).
In UK, (Elizabeth, 2000) has conducted a survey regarding on banks concluded that 67 percent of UK banks feel that “security concerns” is the major barriers for Internet banking. The same results obtained from the study (Howcroft, Hamilton and Hewer, 2002), discover that security concern among customers was the top-ranking barrier for non-adoption of Internet banking in united kingdom.

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Information and knowledge on electronic banking (assurance)
The important factor that consumers consider before adopting the amount of information and prior experience of technologies. In this factor while the use of internet banking is moderately new experience to many people. They have low awareness of internet banking is a huge factor in reason people not to adopt internet banking according to ( Sathye 1999 ) , he has found that consumers were unaware about the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages regarding with internet banking ( Sathye 1999 ). Consumers are generally familiar with technologies as per the previous articles and the prior computer experience is associated with use of PC, the Internet and e-mail. Karjaluoto et al. (2002)

Therefore adoption of electronic banking is compulsory for the banks offering this service make the consumers are aware about the availability and explain how it adds value to other products of its own or that of the competitors (Bonfadelli, 2002).

Perceived risk

According to (Bauer1960) defined risk in terms of uncertainty and consequences associated with consumer’s actions. Perceived risk increase with uncertainty or the degree of associated negative consequence.

The factor mostly effecting on the adoption of online banking by customer is perceived risk. Many studies (Pavlou, 2003),(Jarvenpaa, S.L., Tractinsky, N. and Saarinen, L., 1999) believed customer risk perceptions to be a major problem to the future growth of online banking services. Perceived risk mainly involving with the customer perception. Less perception of risk involved in the internet banking an individual used online banking system. This has been become major factor since most of the criminal cases are happening through the system. If and illegal person gets the information through the online that will create the potential losses.

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As consumers may perceive that reversing a transaction, stopping a payment after finding a mistake, or a refund may not be possible. Performance risk in electronic banking is less satisfying than non-electronic banking. Material risk in electronic banking direct to potential injury when personal information is accessed by a third party. Social risk refers to the older generation who may disapprove of the use of electronic banking due to their perception that non-electronic banking is personal and friendly.

However, this research describes customer’s trust as a function of grade of risk involved in the situation. This is particularly true in case of electronic banking, where there is a physical separation between the bank and the customer.

Convenience
Convenience has been identified by several studies as an important adoption factor of innovation technologies (Akinci, Aksoy and Atilgan, 2004), (Collier and Kimes, 2013). According to the Copeland (1923) defined convenience goods as a class of consumer products that were greatly distributed and required minimal time and mental effort to purchase.

Convenience also focused on resources such as time and effort required of the consumer in shopping for a product (Collier and Kimes, 2013). However the 24-hour service availability, worldwide accesses, home accesses, time saving are the convenience in Internet banking (Gerrard and Barton Cunningham, 2003).
As per the previous authors considered internet banking as competitive advantage of a new retailing channel in services sector. And also perceived convenience was the strongest forecast of online banking usage (Gerrard and Barton Cunningham, 2003).

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3.2 RQ2 – What are the factor(s) influencing for customer satisfaction?
Service quality and customer satisfaction
The relationship between perceived service quality and customers satisfaction have been survey in many number of researches and they have identified that there is a strong connection on service quality and customer satisfaction. (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Malhotra, 2005), (Taylor and Baker, 1994).
According to (Hanif, 2010) Increase in service quality of the banks can satisfy and develop attitudinal interest which ultimately retains valued customers. The excellent level of service quality will increase the customer satisfaction and poor service quality will impact on decrease the customer satisfaction as well (Jain and Gupta, 2004).
As example Customer services are the opportunities for telecom service providers are added to mobile network other than voice services in which contents are either self-produced by service provider or provided through strategic compliance with service provider (Kuo, Wu and Deng, 2009). The improved customer service quality are the central point of the banking industry service providers for social as well as for economic reasons.

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Brand reputation and customer satisfaction

A brand reputation is also one of the most important aspects of banking sector. Brand image has been defined as the consumer’s mental picture of the offering and it that consumers associate with the specific attributes of the product or service (Journal and Winter, 2013). In the other hand brand reputation defined as reasoned or emotional perceptions consumers attach to specific brands (Ahn, Han and Lee, 2006).
Perceived brand reputation in banking sector refers to the banks reputation and significant place of bank in the banking industry. It measures experience of the customer how people fill with this brand and their services. A proved overall brand performance is determined by some combination of beliefs about the brand’s various performance grades (Woodruff et al., 1983). A brand perception is important factor to service provides because, satisfied customer with brand will recommends that service to others.

Most of the time Customer service centers are do not handle the complaints of the customers are not able to address them properly and as well as they have to hold the line longer time period. Sometimes telecom service providers take considerable longer time to resolve the problems like network coverage or call quality, the customers do not wait for long and hence they lose satisfaction with that particular brand (Ahn, Han and Lee, 2006).

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Perceived value (Price fairness)
Apart from brand perception perceived value also one of the most important factor of the customer satisfaction measurement. It is actually dimension of benefits of the service. As per the (Parasuraman and Grewal, 2000) Delivering superior customer value is an essential strategy for firms to gain competitive advantage and long term success.
As per the previous research willingness towards price fairness has a heavy relationship with customer satisfaction. Charging the fair price is helps to improve customer satisfaction and loyalty. Price fairness is refers to consumers identified that price is reasonable, acceptable or justifiable. (Xia, Monroe and Monroe, 2004), (Kuo, Wu and Deng, 2009). Considering banking sector there is significant impact of price fairness on customer satisfaction since due to electronic banking.
According to (Lommerud and Sørgard, 2002) telecommunication services industry customers are not price sensitive all the times. Sometimes brand loyalty impact some consumers are retained with old organizations. In this Literature showed substantive role of price fairness with customer satisfaction.

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3.3 RQ3 -. What is the relationship between electronic banking service quality and customer satisfaction
Most of the definitions of service quality focus on customer needs according to the (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1985) service quality stems from a comparison of what consumers feel service firms should offer with their perceptions of the performance of firms providing the service. Another way service quality defined as an opinion or estimation regarding the level of service quality.

As per the (Parasuraman 1985, 1988) popular model for evaluating service quality is
SERVQUAL model and he has tried to categorize these factors and grouped into five
Dimensions: reliability, tangibles, empathy, responsiveness, and assurance

? RELIABILITY-Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately

? TANGIBLES-Appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel, and communication materials

? EMPATHY-Caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customers

? RESPONSIVENESS-Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service

? ASSURANCE-Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence

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Independent Variable – Reliability

Reliability is one of the most important dimensions to examine in accessing the banking services quality. According to (Karatepe, O.M., Yavas, U. and Babakus, E., 2005) reliability defines as a trustiness of bank customer toward the bank services, precise records and information statement.
Stated the term of reliability also refers as the skill of bank’s employee in delivering services to fulfil bank customer constantly and trustfully (Saraei, S. and Amini, A.M., 2012)

according to the (Chakravarty, Feinberg and Rhee, 2004) found that among customer service quality dimensions, reliability are significantly negative correlated with customer’s tendency to switch banks. This implies when increment in dependability of a bank administrations quality will reason the inclination to change to other bank. In the event that the unwavering quality administrations gave isn’t fulfilled by the bank client, it will prompt higher propensity the client will change to other bank. This is one of the negative impacts that will occur when bank customer is dissatisfied with the poor reliability services provided.

Independent Variable – Tangible

Tangible element consider as one of the service delivery to customer which could directly affect customer experience as well as their repurchase intention. According to the (Kincaid et al., 2010) said that the ” services ” comprises of various substantial components, for example, surrounding conditions, convenient format and usefulness which influence fulfillment level of client and by implication impact client faithfulness.

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(Yavas, U., Benkenstein, M. and Stuhldreier, U., 2004) The effective relationship between reliant variable, consumer loyalty and free factor, important component, demonstrate a high quality of adjunction. It suggests that substantial component is huge to clarify the consumer loyalty. As well as he has suggest that an improvement of tangible element of service quality should lead to higher level of customer satisfaction
However as per the Yavas extent of tangible factor considered as having acceptable significance level in determination of customer satisfaction in banking industry.

Independent Variable – Empathy

Empathy can be defined as caring and personalized attention that the firm provides to its consumers. According to the (Wang, Y., Lo, H.P. and Hui, Y.V., 2003) described that empathy is the capability of a person to take a look at a situation from other people’s point of view. As well as empathy can be depicted as procedure of a business relationship that empowers at least two gatherings to see the circumstance from point of view perspective of others (Saraei and Amini, 2012)
According to the (Yavas, U., Benkenstein, M. and Stuhldreier, U., 2004) empathy is a simple way to see how the banks with a seller’s mindset in giving individual attention to customers understands the particular needs of customers. As per the (Ladhari 2011) has mention empathy is most important factor which include both customer satisfaction and loyalty. As well as if the bank employees serve their customers to excellent service attitude consumers will have high level of satisfaction and stay loyalty to the bank.

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Independent Variable – Responsiveness

One of the key quality dimension of administration quality that noteworthy to consumer loyalty is responsiveness. Defined responsiveness as the willingness to assist customers and offer timely service (Hasanuddin, Suhaimi and Saban, 2011). For examples, employees are assisting them patiently and quick to respond to their needs. The behavior of employees with a pleasant and friendly is important to improve confidence among customers. Also frontline employees should be trained to give quick service, show care and interest in helping customers, and respond appropriately to their requests.
(Kemal Avkiran, N., 1994) found that elements of responsiveness is most important for the service quality and significant for the overall service quality. Also identified responsive is most important and most valued dimension of service quality (Antony, J., Jiju Antony, F. and Ghosh, S., 2004). Also found that responsiveness is an important determinant of quality of satisfaction and the lack of responsiveness is a major cause of dissatisfaction (Johnston, 1995). Investigating this previous data the result indicated that higher responsiveness of employees lead to higher satisfaction of customers.

Independent Variable – Assurance

According to the (Parasuraman 1988) in the service industries, assurance is defined as the impression of services provider to ensure providing service in the form of security and validity.
Security is the real idea to guarantee protection when apply in worldwide system condition. Basically banks should have look into consider the quality of assurance when build up e-banking service. In the assurance purpose the web site must protect the data levels between bank and customer, in this manner to ensure individual privacy (Cristobal, E., Flavian, C. and Guinaliu, M., 2007) as per the (Huang, S.M., Shen, W.C., Yen, D.C. and Chou, L.Y., 2011) Brand-name as an agent for trust and speak to an image of value and collaboration in the online administration conditions.

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According to the (Kumar and Charles, 2010) examined banking industries in Malaysia, they found out there is significant relationship between assurance and customer satisfaction. As per the (Arasli, H., Turan Katircioglu, S. and Mehtap-Smadi, S., 2005) Examined 5 core dimension of service quality and examined which have the most significant effect on customer satisfaction in Cyprus. They using multiple regression analysis and found out assurance dimension have most significant contribution on customer satisfaction.

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4.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1 Research Design
The research design provides facts and suggestions on major connections between the variables. Since this was an initial and exploratory study to determine the linkage between electronic banking and customer satisfaction. Previous research has revealed that the survey method appropriate when investigating technology and electronic commerce adoption ((Venkatesh et al., 2016)) which was the circumstance surrounding this study.

4.2 Philosophy
The study will focus on observable reality and search for regularities and causal relationships in data to create law-like generalizations asserts the philosophy positivism where the researcher will find existing theories and practices to support (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012).
The philosophy of interpretivism has not been used to the research due to the restriction of using primary data for this research.

4.3 Approach
According to (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012) the deductive approach has been utilized by nature of positivism as a part of the investigation. Advancement of a hypothesis that is fit to be tried by a progression of suggestions is known as the deductive approach that will at first hunt to clarify causal connections amongst ideas and factors.

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4.4 Method
Quantitative data analysis method have been used in the research.

4.5 Data collection
The secondary data were used for supporting the study and to get the findings of other researchers in the area (empirical study). The sources of secondary data were library books, journal articles, magazines on business, internet sources, and other related materials were used as well as Secondary data was conducted to identify the factors impact of electronic Banking and investigate the service quality on customer satisfaction.
Sampling technique of homogeneous purposive in non-probability sampling that has been used to collect data from different credible secondary sources. The technique enables the researcher to collect reduced amount of data by allowing only data from a subgroup of all possible elements or cases (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012).

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5.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

The mix method is used in the data analysis. The data has been analyzed quantitatively and
Qualitatively using different tools and techniques. The literature that were reviewed in this
Research are mostly qualitative than quantitative.

5.1 Quantitative data analysis

A score model has been created to survey impacting factors and to transform those variables in to numerically important information’s. It is explained 3 tables and 3 graphs.

Table 1 & table 2

Below Table 1 have summarizes key 5 dimensions literature which related to RQ1 and RQ3
Respectively in a score model to represent their respective importance. That is describe the
Table 1 contain of 3 noticeable important factors and 2 low noticeable factors which have
Positive impact on electronic banking on customer satisfaction. Table 2 contain the main 3
Significant factors that have positive impact on customer satisfaction in banking industry.

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Table 1- service quality dimensions and their importance (Score of 1 – 5 will be giving according to the factors)

author

dimensions 01
J. Joseph Cronin. Jr.
02
Chich-jen shieh 03
Onserio nyamwange 04
Lee yew chong
score
reliability 3 4 3 1 11
tangibles 1 2 2 5
empathy 4 3 4 3 14
responsiveness 1 1 2 4
assurance 3 5 4 5 17

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Table 2 of customer satisfaction dimensions and their importance (Score of 1 – 5 will be giving according to the factors)

author

dimensions 01
Mirza Mohammad Didarul Alam 02
Michael D. Johnson 03
Anders Gustaffsson 04
Norizan Kassim
score
Quality of the service 4 2 3 1 10
Brand reputation 5 3 5 3 16
Price
fairness 2 2 2 1 7

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Table – 3

This has been found in the analysis that all factors in table 1 and 2 can be categorized under 6
Major factors in common. They are assurance, brand reputation, empathy, reliability, quality and price. They have been categorize under table 3.

Table 3 – Scores model for influencing factors
author
dimensions
Author
score
Avg score

assurance 17 17/75
Brand reputation 16 16/75
empathy 14 14/75
reliability 11 11/75
quality 10 10/75
price 7 7/75

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Table 4

No Dimension Score Sum Average
1 assurance 17 75 0.22667
2 Brand reputation 16 75 0.21333
3 empathy 14 75 0.18667
4 reliability 11 75 0.14667
5 quality 10 75 0.13333
6 price 7 75 0.09333

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5.2 Pareto analysis

Pareto Analysis is a statistical technique in decision-making used for the selection of a limited number of tasks that produce significant overall effect. It uses the Pareto Principle (also known as the 80/20 rule) the idea that by doing 20% of the work you can generate 80% of the benefit of doing the entire job.

Table 5
No Dimension Score Cumulative amount Cumulative
percentage 80%
1 assurance 17 17 22.66% 80%
2 Brand reputation 16 33 44% 80%
3 empathy 14 47 62.66% 80%
4 reliability 11 58 77.33% 80%
5 quality 10 68 90.66% 80%
6 price 7 75 100.00% 80%

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5.3 Qualitative data analysis

Qualitative Research is primarily exploratory research. It is used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research

In table 5 identified that there is a relationship between affecting factors of RQ1 and RQ2. According to Pareto analysis only 4 factors are contributing 80 percent of influence. Therefore those 4 factors have taken into close consideration.

5.4 Research values

The integrity of research is based on adherence to core values—objectivity, honesty, openness, fairness, accountability, and stewardship. These core values help to ensure that the research enterprise advanced knowledge.

5.5 Research Findings

H1: There is significant relationship between assurance and customer satisfaction

H1: There is significant relationship between empathy and customer satisfaction.

H1: There is significant relationship between reliability and customer satisfaction.

H1: There is significant relationship between responsiveness and customer satisfaction.

H1: There is significant relationship between tangible and customer satisfaction.

I believe that the findings from this research will be very helpful to banking industry in developing strategies for e-banking services and retain customers

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5.6 Leads for the research
The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction can be investigated in other sector of the service industry.
Transactional studies different economies.

5.7 Research results

Data were analyzed using Pareto analysis and calculated for the dimensions of the service quality and the method. Analysis was used to determine the impact of SERVQUAL model dimensions on the quality of e-banking services. Finally, values of the correlations between service quality and customer satisfaction were determined.

6.0 CONCLUSION
The research study has shown that independent variables that are customer services and assurance and empathy play a very important role in making customer satisfied. Each independent variable not only influences dependent variable but complement each other as well.
Customer satisfaction is very important as satisfied customer would add value to the brand and word of mouth and help in making good reputation of brand. Satisfied customers would be able to make long term profitable relationship with brand

Our findings can be practically implemented on service firms and apart from that those business which give due importance to relational marketing.

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6.1 Limitation of the Study
– Secondary data only
– Limited word count (500 words)
– In our research study, we only study about perception of respondent and did not study about the — expectation of respondent Expectation is something that we wish to achieve it and expect to happen in the future
– We do not know what the customer expectation on service provided is.

6.2 Recommendation for Future Research
Throughout the research, we had identified few limitations. Therefore, we had suggested few recommendations for future research.
We suggest that by making customers feel satisfied, by establishing good relationship with customers through efficient customer services would lead toward brand loyalty and simply by keeping the price fairness of services compatible a firm can establish long term profitable relationship with customers.
Our findings can be practically implemented on service firms and apart from that those business which give due importance to relational marketing.

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