Education is an imperative procedure of the advancement of any general public. It is considered one of the primary Pillars of a general public (Adams, 1998). Education is the establishment of all sorts of advancements on the world. On the world just those nations have hit ground and advancement which have a sound education system (Ball, 1990).
Education is necessary for the personality grooming of individual. It creates awareness among the people about life and its challenges in the creation. It fills discharge minds with thoughts and imagination. So educationally sound nations play leadership role in the world (American Federation of Teachers, 2000). Since its independence, Pakistan lagged behind in national development and progress due to weak education system.
The primary system of education couldn’t create progress due to several factors such as parochial social structure and state politicians, corrupt paperwork, authoritarian regimes, fragile civil society and weak democracy.
Another gloomy side of the story is that even the gift of day of the government has targeted solely only the upper education and primary education has been neglected. This mental object of primary education system has created gaps between the education establishments at numerous levels.
This can be simply seen within the performances of student coming from elite schools and traditional government schools (Government of Punjab, 2002). This case has created extra confounded the problems of parents, teachers and students who are related to government primary schools inside the country. Because of this situation, Pakistan is lagging at the back of many countries the South Asian location in terms of fundamental literacy rates. It’s far the bottom in the area (Government of Pakistan, 2001).
Finance is that the life blood of any system. Lack of cash affects the expansion and development of a system (Bullous and Podgursky, 2000). At the time of independence, Pakistan since its beginning hereditary a poor education system that was already financially disabled. The primary education system couldn’t get enough monetary from the government that additional weakened the system physically and academically (Shah, 2003).
The budgetary allocation for education in Pakistan is lesser than different countries within the region. The present education budget allocation is a smaller amount than a pair of the Gross Domestic product (GDP). As compared to Pakistan, Srilanka allocates three.2 % on education, Nepal 2.7%, India 3.5% and Asian country three.5% of their GDPs. Moreover, the system is troubled with financial corruption that exacerbated the issues of the system. Resultantly, the standard of teaching and learning, administration and coming up with, implementation of policies got affected (Hayes, 1987).
The poor teaching and learning standards, weak management and supervising has semiconductor diode to enhanced drop outs at primary level. Consequently, the parents are reluctant to send their youngsters to those schools (Shahzadi and Praveen, 2002). There has been continues decrease within the enrollment of primary education within the country. Despite of speedily increasing population 40% of the youngsters in Pakistan are below 5 years of age. This is often a horrifying situation within the country that has propelled different issue like child labor, child abuse and child trafficking so on (Khalid, 1998).
Education is that the key to the socio-economic development of states. Building a high quality education structure warrants a powerful foundation within the kind of quality primary education. Education generally and education for all in specific, is one among the highest priorities of government of Pakistan. The country has ten-year Perspective Development arrange (2001-2011) visualizing the long run macro-economic and sectorial growth methods. National plan of Action (2001-2015) has been developed through broad primarily based consultation with principle actors EFA and stakeholders. The idea for designing goals of the National plan of Action (2001-2015) is that the sixth EFA goal that aims to achieve the disadvantages population teams in rural and concrete areas with stress on out of school and illiterate girls and women; and to enhance relevancy and quality of basic education through enhancing learning achievements of the youngsters.
Although the government of Pakistan has taken several in initiatives like revision of national curricula, production of quality textbooks, placement of graduate teachers at primary level, and grant of stipends to girl students, however we’ve not been able to accomplish the participation rate of 100 percent by 2015 at primary level that is one in all the most important provisions of National plan of Action (Government of Pakistan, 2005). Nearly the similar targets were set for the developing countries beneath Millennium Development Goals (2004); its Goal ‘2’ is ‘to make sure that by 2015 youngsters everyplace, boys and women alike, are going to be able to complete a full course of primary schooling’. This target of universalization of primary education looks to be tough to realize with this pace of students’ participation. These days 9 out of the 10 youngsters within the world head to school. A total of 570 million primary age youngsters are listed in schools whereas seventy two million are still out of school.
Punjab is home to 56 of Pakistan’s population representing 83.7 million folks. As the largest province, Punjab occupies a important role within the country’s economic and political life, and may help to form the direction of national policies, enabling similar reforms in alternative provinces to assist the complete country move towards action of the millennium Development Goals (2004). Skills rate in Punjab is 59%, female literacy rate is 500% and male is 69%, where rural literacy rate is 48% and urban is 74% (Government of Pakistan, 2010; Government of Pakistan, 2005a ; b). The enrollment and drop out situation at primary level isn’t encouraging. Out of an estimated one million youngsters who are registered in primary categories, thousands leave per annum ensuing high drop move into every category. However it’s attention-grabbing to notice that the bottom drop out at primary level in Punjab is at school fourth that is 18.7% and also the highest one is at school one that is 29.4% (Government of the Punjab, 2007).
In keeping with the objectives of the national education policy 1998-2010, the current government has according high priority to quality primary education for all. So as to attain this objective, the government has started upgrading existing primary schools to elementary schools, initiating non-formal education in government for 5-9 years age group in underprivileged areas and initiating early childhood education in government schools (The ministry of education, 2001).
Analysis of school reforms and policy implementation measures in Pakistan. One will simply infer from a detailed perusing of the various education policies that the most targets that were an equivalent in every case. Every policy tried to realize the target of universal primary education, quality education technical ability, higher quality teacher coaching, community participation etc. however, none of those targets has been achieved utterly to this point.
In addition, the primary school program has recently been revised; the community is additional concerned at school management than it absolutely was before; the teachers in some schools have exploitation completely different teaching methods; the strength of the many schools has improved.
The Government of Pakistan has introduced many education policies and reforms for rising education standards except for the provincial governments that have also been active during this field. The target of this study is to investigate completely different programs launched at provincial level for rising the standard and standards of education in Punjab Province. The foundation of Punjab Education was established in 1991 as an autonomous body to produce education through public-private cooperation within the remote areas. This foundation had terribly strict rules that need to be restructured within the lightweight of Act-XII. The objective of Punjab Education Foundation is very clear concerning the promotion of prime quality education by providing financial and technological support. Punjab has considerably larger participation among the kids of school ages compared with remaining provinces of Pakistan. At the time during this, 60 and 35 thousand governments also as private schools are operational in 36 district of Punjab (Asadullah, 2009).
Statement of the problem
Role of government in promoting effective primary Education: A case study of PEF schools.
Objective of the study
Following objectives was need for study:
1. To assess the role of government in promoting primary education.
2. To suggest suitable measures for PEF to improve teachers? training.
3. To identify the main problems of primary education.
4. To present possible long term solutions on the basis of the study to the problems of Primary education.
1.3 Research Question
1. What is the role of government in promoting of primary education?
2. What is the main of problems primary education?
3. What are the suitable measures for PEF School?
Significance of the study
The problems of primary education in Pakistan can be traced back to the very inception of the country when the newly independent state inherited an already defined system of education. This system was weak, poorly managed and classified. This study attempts to analyze the causes of various problems which have so far plagued the foundation primary education in Pakistan. This study was providing guidelines to increase the professional efficiency of teachers. It will enable the teachers to focus their attention and direct their efforts on developing such skills and attitudes among the teachers as needed for the schools of Pakistan. This study will provide feedback for the PEF in framing suitable mechanism for teachers? training programs. This study may assist the institutions lagging behind in developing professional attitude and other weak areas. This study may provide bases for further research also.
1. The teachers of PEF schools were sample of my study.
2. Both male and female teachers were included in the sample.
3. Thirty-four PEF schools were the sample of the study.
This Chapter reviewed literature of different studies in order to provide a theoretical framework which guided the development of the study model on which analysis of data for the present study was based. It focuses on: factors that represent priority indictors of quality primary education; implementation of quality primary education initiatives; leadership challenges associated with implementation of quality primary education; and conceptual framework for analysis of the study data.
According to URT (2000), education is that method or art of imparting knowledge, ability and judgment, either formally or informally. In this study, education is that method that helps students to have the knowledge of solving problems and challenges which they face in their life in the study area.
2.2 Definitions of Basic education
Basic education has been outlined by different institutions and peoples at different times. Firdissa (2002) defined that, basic education refers to education intended to fulfill basic learning needs of youngsters. Basic education is associate education that’s provided for individuals to learn and change them to satisfy their basic learning needs. According to the definition of World Education Forum held at Jomtien (1990: i x).
In addition, UNESCO (2007) experts? definition basic education covers notions such as fundamental, elementary and primary/secondary education. It’s sure to everybody with none discrimination or exclusion based mostly notably on gender, ethnicity, status or origin, social, economic or physical condition, language, religion, political or different opinion, or belonging to a minority. This definition indicates that the scope of basic education and people United Nations agency area unit expected to learn or should be addressed by the fundamental education. Basic education refers to satisfying learning –for-life wants and it includes knowledge, skills, values and attitudes (World education forum, 2000). Still, UNICEF (1992) defines basic education because the very minimum of knowledge, skill, attitudes and values that will enable individuals to operate with a reasonable expectation of success in their community or society.
2.3 Universalizing Basic Education
Universal primary education refers to the spread of basic education for all and it’s one in every of the goals of the eight millennium development goals that are intended to be achieved by 2015. Kukari (2012:9) expressed that: Universal basic education has been a focal point of GoPNG’s development strategy before and after independence in1975. This is due to its importance within the overall development of human personality and its positive impact to assure quality of life. Thus, it’s been given prominence as a development goal, and enclosed together development policies and plans thus far.
Countries prioritize universal primary education due to its significance for the development objectives and its impact on the opposite development aspects of a rustic. UNESCO (2002) stated if all individuals have a right to education, and if the impact upon people’s capabilities is constitutionally part of our understanding of development, it follows that the availability of a basic level of education for all individuals should be created universal. Gemeda (2008) defined universal primary education is education: education for all children that desires the beginning and completion of primary education from grade 1-8 for attaining by the year 2015 in the appropriate age of schooling (7-14 years). Nambalirwa (2010) cited the Education Pre-Primary, primary and Post Primary) Acts 13 of 2008 and stated universal primary education means the state funded education program education program where tuition fees are paid by government and the principle of equitable access to conducive, quality, relevant and affordable education are emphasized for all children irrespective of gender, race and disability.
2.4 Importance of Education
Education is an important ingredient of development and a basic right of each individual. Education may be a power-catalyzing factor that provides mental, physical, philosophical and ethical coaching to peoples, to modify them to own full consciousness of their purpose in life and equip them to achieve that purpose. It’s associate degree for the spiritual development also because the material fulfillment of human desires.
Generally, it’s believed that education may be a method by that individual’s socialization takes place. Education could be a socializing factor. It is consciously controlled method wherever by changes in behavior is produced within the man and through the man among the cluster. The statement that “person is a genial animal” is a famous saying. A person is born during a society and lives in an exceedingly society. He breathes within the social atmosphere. Society is around him and at interval him. Speaking broadly speaking education is that the method of transferring man’s original nature into human and thus social nature directed toward the goal of constructing living within the world smart and worthy.
Education has been taking part in its role within the development of primary education. That means and scope of education is way wider than that of acquisition. An extremely someone may be illiterate further. This clearly sounds self-contradictory however this can be a truth identified to all or any students in several fields of information. General acquisition isn’t enough within the world of these days. Different specialized types of acquisition are essential for meaningful effective dealing in life. Education is answerable for overall development of individual and society perpetually, According to Siddiqui S.A. (1982, p.i).
2.5 Primary Education
The gross enrollment rate for primary and secondary education in the years 1949-50 was 16 percent and 9 percent respectively. These figures were even lower for female participation, 4% at primary and 3% at secondary level. Hence, it had been accomplished that the task of nation building would not be achieved without an educated and skilled manpower.
The first National Education Conference (1947) recommended that the goal of ought to acquire during a period of 20 years. The education policy and parallel five-year development plans in Pakistan have remained targeted on increasing access, removing inequities, and improving the standard of education since then (Ahmed, 2013). The present education policy (2009), also publicize the achievement of universal primary education for all. The counseled strategies to meet the target are, formal and informal mode of delivery, increased provision of primary and secondary school facilities, utilization of multiple resources including community, NGO’s, private sector and decentralized management of public schools. The quality of education is another major issue, which adversely affects the entire system and girls’ participation in particular. The current policy has recommended improving quality through better teacher education and improved curricula. The education policies and development plans are described more in detail in the next section (The National Education Policy-2009).
2.6 Importance of Primary Education
The education and particularly primary education is backbone and basic institute of any education. Associate ignorant society resists modification. It rejects all innovative ways that guarantee progress and prosperity. Biography of the states proves the truthfulness of the privilege. Education and to be lot of definite, basic education could be a affordable and cheaper suggest that, which conjures up the individuals to simply accept the modification and enjoins them to assume critically.
It affect the credentials of the peoples by that they alter economic, social, political, ethical and cultural systems, prevailing the society and summon for freelance and prosperous life. While considering the idea of standard education our concentration is typically centered on the upper establishment of learning, whereas early childhood education is that the foundation of each learning. The higher the foundation, higher the edifice. Moreover, it has been analyzed through intensive research studies that come back of primary education is above that of upper education. Therefore, primary education wants additional absorption and inputs to boost its standards and quality. Universities, Colleges and other institutions of technical education aren’t any doubt, important in their own right, however temperament of person and girls gets its form from time of life. Primary education plays an important role within the manufacturing civilized national and earliest to guide the state through crises. Bolam, R. (1980).
2.7 System of Primary Education
The responsibilities of evaluating and promoting of students from category I to V still lie with the ADO. A student is certified to admission 6th class in elementary or secondary if he qualifies the final examination at the end of 5th class. According to National Curricula, Primary education comprises Grades I-V. The language of instruction is either Urdu or the regional language. The curriculum includes reading, writing, arithmetic, general science, social studies, Islamic education, and physical education.
2.8 Primary Teacher’s Education
According to the Sharon, F.R. and Gretchen B.R (1995, p.6) defines a good teacher education programmed must be dynamic so that it can produce teachers who are:
Moral stewards, constructors and philosophers draw from a strong base of values, knowledge skills and professional commitment. Their value system is deeply grounded in the rights of children, their knowledge base is self-constructed yet connected to the culturally accepted knowledge of the field, they understand how people grow, develop and learn their skills and are tried in experience, and their professional practice is guided by philosophy of reflection, action and accountability.
According to The National Education Policy (1992, p.12) on teacher education says that; A separate unit for organizing teacher training shall be set up by each provincial education department and at the federal level.
Mobile training units may be set up for on the job training of teachers
Teacher training institutions will be equipped and strengthened, and their faculty will be provided training to update their knowledge and skill.
A regular in-service training program will be launched for teachers at all levels.
Distance education method will be used for in-service training. Techniques and methods of community motivation towards education will be emphasized in training programs. Computer education will be a compulsory component of all teacher-training programs.
Deficiency of science, mathematics and languages teachers shall be removed.
Also, special scholarship scheme will be started for those holding secondary or higher secondary qualification in order to attract them to teaching profession.
The private sector will be encouraged to set up teacher resource centers (TRC’s) to which government schools teachers may be nominated for training.
A national commission for teachers will be set up for examining the problems of teacher.
Teacher training curricula will be updated and the need for increasing the duration of teacher training will be assessed.
The Education System in Pakistan has been categorized as primary (Class K to V), middle (class VI to VIII), secondary (class IX to X), higher secondary (class XI to XII) and university level. Primary education is the cornerstone of any educational system.
2.9 Teachers at Primary Level
The importance of teacher as key figure within the education method has perpetually been recognized.
The foremost recent National Education Policy 1998-2010 jointly acknowledges that the teacher is taken into consideration the foremost crucial have faith in implementing all tutorial reforms
at the gross level.
According to the Darker Framework of Action for EFA, 2000 also state under:
“Enhance the standing, morale and expertness of academics” (Article 8-ix) quality of public grade school may be a matter of concern each in terms of variety of teachers provided and their qualification. The qualifications of teacher square measure usually matriculate/HSC + PTC/CT. In a number of the areas even the condition of matriculate has got to be relaxed. The academics have hardly any chance for systematic in-service coaching. On-the job coaching, observation and steering is almost non-existent”.
The World Declaration on Education for All emphasized the role of teacher as under:
“The pre-eminent role of teachers as well as of other educational personnel in providing quality education needs to be recognized and developed to optimize their contribution ……improve their working conditions and status notably in respect to the recruitment, initial and in-service training, remuneration and career development possibilities.” (Article 1.6 para 33, p. 58).
2.10 Factors that Constitute priority indicators of Quality Primary Education
In the analysis of indicators of educational quality, there are a number of internationally recognized indicators of quality that are highlighted in the substantial body of literature which attempts to determine the appropriate school quality inputs required to boost student achievement (Adams, 1997).
In a review of priority indicators, according to the World Bank (World Bank, 2007) they were in the following order: libraries; instructional time; homework; textbooks; teacher subject knowledge; teacher experience, laboratories; teachers’ salaries; and class size.
Lockheed and Verspoor (1991) identified five major in-schools areas for improving the quality of education. These included: improving curriculum; increasing learning materials; increasing instructional time; improving teaching; and increasing the capacity of students.
2.11 Implementation of Quality Primary Education initiatives
Considering the importance of primary education in national development, it would be expected that many countries would have launched programmes to increase access leading to achieving universal primary education (Therkidse, 2000; Gershberg and Winkler, 2003). This has, however, not been the case with many of the Africa countries (Kagia, 2005).
The National Education Policy 1992 recognized that the quality aspect of primary education has been compromised and required urgent examination of the measures needed for its raising. The policy has mentioned several strategies for the purpose including teachers’ training; updating “primary kit”; provision of books; etc.
In Pakistan, the period of primary education is 5 years, wherever medium of instruction at this stage is maternal language of the kid or the regional language. Co-education exists to a substantial extent in private primary school however it’s discouraged in government school because of social compulsion. The current government has embarked upon a phased programmed for instruction of universal primary education by providing additional schools and lecturers thus on raise the participation rate from 66 to 100% by 2015.10.
This chapter deals with the methods, strategies adopted by the researcher and the procedure of the research with the due consultancy and guidance of the supervisor. Focal point of the study was to assess the perception of the role of government in promoting effective primary education: A case study of Punjab education foundation (PEF). For this purpose researcher reviewed all available accessible literature related to the study. A comprehensive description of the research methodology incurring on this study is given under.
For this study all male and female teachers of district Vehari and district Multan served as population.
District of Multan Multan khanewal Lodhran Vehari Total
Schools 18 33 27 16 94
The study about PEF schools of Multan division. Therefore, out of the list of thirty four schools were selected and from eighteen schools Multan district and sixteen schools Vehari district. One hundred twenty teachers were selected through convenient sampling technique. Multan division was the sample for this study.
3.2.1 Sampling Frame
Two districts was selected sample for this study.
Sr no Name of Name of Boys Girls’ schools Total
district schools schools schools
1 Multan 18 1 17 18
2 Vehari 16 1 15 16
3.3 Research Tool
In this study questionnaire/surrey research was used as a tool for collection of data. Questionnaire will be comprised of 30 questions for collecting data.
3.4 Data collection
According to the adopted procedure of data collection the questionnaire was distributed to government primary schools and PEF schools teachers and they were asked to read all the questions carefully and tick the answer where fed the best. By this procedure the data were collected from teachers.
3.5 Data Analysis
The data were analyzed statistically techniques. Table’s data were collected through personal visits of the targeted schools and collected data through questionnaire from the respondent. The data was coded into numbers, and entry was made into MS-Excel 2013 and transformed into the SPSS 19.00 for statistical operations such as percentage mean score standard deviation and t test.
This chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of data. The purpose of the study was role of government in promoting effective primary education: a case study of Punjab education foundation schools. To achieve the study objectives, the researcher developed a questionnaire based on Likert scale with restricted response (SA, A, U, D, SD) and distributed it among 120teachers of Districts Multan and the researcher personally administered the questionnaire and conducted the door to door survey in different rural and urban schools of districts Multan and Vehari. Total 125 questionnaires were printed but the data were collected from 120 teachers, so the response return rate was found 96%.