BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Being away with your parents is not as easy as it looks. Boarding students may present a difficult time of adjustment (Giddan, 1988). Living away from home for the first time can add anxiety of being separated from existing family bonds for many students (Fisher, Murray & Frazer, 1985). In addition to that, being away may be the cause of the different stressors that boarding students encounter in their daily activities.
To define, stress is a reaction to a stimulus that disturbs the physical or mental equilibrium of a certain person (De Witt, 2015). A stressful event can trigger the “fight-or-flight” response, causing hormones (adrenaline and cortisol) to surge through the body. It is defined as any challenge to homeoostasis or the body’s internal sense of balance (Waghachavare, Dhumale, Kadam ; Gore 2013). The word stress brings thoughts such an increased rate of depression, anxiety, cardiovascular disease and other potentially life-threatening issues to one’s mind (Essel & Owusu 2017).
As stress is being encountered daily by boarding students, this may leave various effects to them. The act of combining a busy life along with education causes stress and depression (Essel & Owusu, 2017). Stress affecting students academically leads to a poor performance in school works. Students lose their concentration. As for the social effects, students are social beings by nature, as they characteristically have an essential need and wish to uphold helpful social relations. Social relationships can offer nurturance, foster feelings of social inclusion, and lead to reproductive success. On the other hand, the impact of stress physically reflects on the health of the boarding student. Stress can actually make you breathe tougher which is not a problem for most people, but for those with asthma or a lung diseases, being able to breathe easily is a must (Essel & Owusu, 2017). Also, stress may cause restlessness in a student. This makes them always busy and tired causing sleep deprivations which is not good for the body. While in emotional aspects, students with stress may show outward signs of anxiety fidgeting, biting their fingernails and tapping their feet. A student who are stressed up also get discourage easily. This is because they have a lot on their head and always have the feelings that whatever they will do will not go well (Essel & Owusu, 2017).
Because of this, the internet is filled with different coping mechanisms that boarding students may use in their everyday life. And as they embark their new journey, one carries one’s own unique coping skills as they gradually makes way to become adept with the variety of problems one will meet in adjusting with the challenges of the life in school (Tattao, 2016). Boarding students may cope up with the stresses they encounter through the help of different coping strategies such as emotional, physical and academic coping mechanism. Some examples are release of emotions such as crying, taking time to rest and socializing with your parents and significant others. Also, most students always use turning to religion when dealing with difficulties or under stress (Tattao, 2016).
This is why the researchers chose to study this matter. This is because the Senior High School students are plunged in a new environment and adjustment to academic life is one of their concerns. The researchers want to know the different causes of stress that boarding students encounter and how they cope up from it. This is also to identify the effective coping mechanisms being observed by boarding students and the ineffective ones too. It is on this context that the researcher embarked on the study.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study aims to seek and establish the coping mechanisms of boarding students regarding different types of stress and to prove if there are existing coping mechanisms that are effective in helping students to deal with their academic and household stresses.
Specifically, it answers the following;
1.What is the profile of the respondents based on gender?
2.What common problems are being encountered by the boarding students?
3.What are the common coping mechanism being practiced by the boarding students?
4.Is there a significant difference between the coping mechanisms of female students from male students?
STATEMENT OF NULL HYPOTHESES
There is no significant difference between the coping mechanisms of female and male respondents.
Figure 1. Paradigm of the conceptual framework
The study was being assessed according to the psychological stress theories of Lazarus and Folkman’s (1986) transactional model theory. According to Lazarus and Folkman, (1986), stress is a relationship between individuals and their environment. Psychological stress refers to a relationship with the environment that the person assesses as significant for their well being and in which the demands burden or better available coping resources (Lazarus and Folkman 1986, p. 63). Lazarus (1991) developed a comprehensive emotion theory that also includes a stress theory (Lazarus, 1993). This transactional model theory distinguishes two basic forms of appraisal, primary and secondary appraisal. Primary appraisal is the establishment of the significance of an event to a person. Secondary appraisal is the assessment of the ability of a person to cope with the consequences of the event that brings them a sense of competence and an increased capacity to learn. This is a far more cognitive approach rather than a physiological one. It provides for individual differences and acknowledges that we can change and reappraise the stressors and therefore manage our coping skills. Lazarus and Folkman (1984) suggested that coping effectiveness plays a key role in the impact of perceived stress on psychological outcomes. One core strategies for coping mechanism is presented by Lazarus and Folkman, (1991). The coping mechanisms is divided into 2 types of coping: (a) Problem-focused coping represents any attempt to reduce stress by attempting to change the event or situation producing the stress, (b) Emotion-focusing coping centers on changing one’s personal reaction to the stressful event or situation. Emotion-focused coping may involve activities such as exercise, cognitive reappraisal, and relaxation training. Relaxation seems a key technique to be taught as it can lower blood pressure, decrease heart rate and strengthen the immune system and counteracts the effects of stress giving the body time to recover. Self-compassionate people tend to rely heavily on positive cognitive restructuring and less so on avoidance and escape but do not appear to differ from less self-compassionate people in the degree to which they cope through problem-solving or distraction. Existing evidence does not show clear differences in the degree to which people who are low versus high in self-compassion seek support as a coping strategy, but more research is needed. Endler and Parker (1990), did 13 studies focusing on Lazarus ; Folkman (1984) two meta-strategies of coping; and out of these studies, 9 identified these two dimensions as being distinct components of coping.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to improve the quality of life of the boarding students as they overcome different stressors everyday. This research would also be significant to the following:
To the boarding students, to help them to cope up with the different sources of stress they encounter upon living in a boarding house. For them to recognize stress, and help them to overcome such. This research shall be helpful for them in a way that this would serve as a guide for them to cope up with different kinds of stress they encounter everyday.
To the teachers, this would help them recognize the stress of boarding students encounter everyday. This would help the teachers guide the students, especially those who are living in a boarding house. Through this research, they will have a knowledge how a boarding student is and would consider giving a lesser school workload.
To the parents of the boarding students, this research will help them guide their siblings, especially their boarding siblings how to cope up in a different kind of environment and how to overcome different stressors upon living in a boarding house. Through this study, they would be familiarized on what their siblings feel upon being away from them.
To the landlords/landladies, this research will help them to understand their boarders feelings upon living on their boarding house. Through this study, they might improve their service to the boarders, depending on the physical stressors the boarders encounter everyday.
To the administrators, the research will be beneficial to them in a way that they would understand the boarding students situation while living in a boarding house. Being the students’ second parents, they are also responsible of them, especially those who are living in a boarding house because they are away from home.
To the researchers, this study shall also be beneficial to them for most of the researchers are as well, boarding students. Through this study, they will have more knowledge on the effects of the different stressors they encounter everyday and how to cope up from it.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
This study was conducted to determine the different coping mechanisms of boarding students ages 16 to 20 years old regarding on their academic and household stress. The data gathered was conducted in Nueva Vizcaya on the first week of March to last week of April 2018. The aspects looked into were the different kinds of coping mechanisms and the strategies and techniques on how to achieve them.
Students aging from 1 to 15 years old and residents/boarders outside Nueva Vizcaya are not included in the data gathering of the study. This study is only limited to coping mechanisms of boarding students and doesn’t include coping mechanisms of others such as workers, and non boarding students.
DEFINITION OF TERM
Anxiety A feeling of wanting to do something very much (Merriam Webster’s Dictionary); this is a fear/painful uneasiness of mind about what might happen .
Boarding House A private house that a person pays to stay in and receive meals (Cambridge Dictionary); temporary house or place were students pay to live.
Boarding students A student who lives at the school or boarding houses during school term (Vocabulary.com); students who are living in boarding house.
?Coping Mechanisms Refers to the specific efforts both behavioral and psychological, that people employ to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize stressful events (www.macses.ucsf.edu/research/psychosocial/coping.php); are ways to which external or internal stress is managed, adopted to acted upon on
Nurturance Emotional and physical nourishment and care given to someone (Oxford Dictionary); the act of improving one’s life, skills, ability, etc.
?Stress A state of mental tension and worry caused by problems in your life, work, etc. (Merriam Webster’s Dictionary); something that causes strong feeling of worry and anxiety.
Students often leave their “home sweet homes” to study in other school. Whether to enroll in states or universities that are not available in the students’ location, to find better schools that offer higher quality education and/or due to some serious or personal problems, the sudden changes in atmosphere and lifestyle affect the physical, social, emotional, mental, and even the academic performance of the students (Martin, A.J., Papworth, B., Ginns, P. ; Liem, G.A.D., 2004). Boarding students might encounter new challenges that are unfamiliar to them like homesickness, academic stresses, handling money, responsibilities, and time management, dealing with those kinds of situations especially to the inexperienced ones would be rough and adjusting to the new rhythm of living would be much challenging. (Miller, B.,2017)
Stressors are demands made by the internal or external environment that upset balance, thus affecting physical and psychological well-being and require action to restore balance. It can be experienced by everyone and can have an impact on different aspects of human life (Britz ; Pappas, 2010). However sources of stress can vary among individuals; what one perceives as stressful may not be to someone else (Whitman et al., 1986). The research of Brittany Hearon entitled “Stress and Coping in Hing School Students in Accelerated Academic Curriculum (2015) identified stressors into different types.
Academic stress refers to those environmental demands and challenges in an academic setting that tax, challenge, or exceed a student’s coping resources, and represents a “call for action.” Academic stress among students have long been researched on, and researchers have identified stressors as too many assignments, competition with other students, meeting deadlines, lack of time, and examinations It may also include failures and poor relationships with other students or teachers and competitions with other students (Fairbrother & Warn, 2003)
Similar to the research “A Multi-Method Exploratory Of Stress, Coping, And Subtance Use Among High School Youth In Private Schools,” conducted by Noelle Leonard, Marya Gwadz and Michelle Grethel (2015), findings described that school works, grades, and peer relationships are the greatest sources of stresses among boarding students. Students described their workloads, which typically include multiple advance level classes, as well as both mandatory and optional extra-curricular activities, followed by simultaneous and difficult tests and quizzes, projects and performance tasks are the sources of students’ stress. Students experienced this heavy workload as a challenge to their abilities to lead a balanced, healthy lifestyle.
Consistent with the study “Stress Tolerance: New Challenges for Millenial College Students” by Helen Band, Bridget Melton, Paul Welle, and Lauren Bighan (2012) found that the main sources of stress identified as life events reported by students were related to pressure to do well in school, moving schools or locations (boarding students), sudden change in school activities,and increased in class workload. Sources of academic stress related to daily hassles were quizzes, lack of sleep, assignments and deadlines.
On the other hand, a study “Stress Differences Between College Freshmen and Senior Students,” by Aiesha Gaither (2015), states that the amount of perceived stress was marginally significant to freshmen comparing to seniors’.Freshmen may not be adequately prepared to succeed in the higher education and have to adjust to a new level of independence while inhabiting an unfamiliar environment . The sudden changes in the routine such as sudden heavy workload and different teaching styles from the previous school setting would be rough and adjusting to the new rhythm of living would be much challenging.
Social (Relationship) Stressors
Families are the helper of every students around the world. But according to research “Stress in Young People: What’s New and What To Do” conducted by McNamara (2000), family stressors have been found to exert a particularly strong and negative impact on students’ welfare, with long term detrimental effects even surpassing those of either school or academic stressors. For instance, a family with history of substance abuse increases a person’s risk for depression. A family history of suicide, high level of daily conflict, poor communication with parents, parental separation, divorce, and high pressure to succeed are also among risk for factors of depression and or suicide which can highly affect academic performance of students . Conflicts may arise when parents’ behaviors contradict students’ words.(Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 2018).
During the transition to adolescence, youth encounter more social stressors as the peer group becomes more salient context for socialization, identity development, and emotional experiences (Ladd ; Troop-Gordon, 2003; Downs Jacqueline, 2001). There are numbers of peer and social stressors that can contribute to mental and emotional sicknesses. Rejection, disciplinary crisis, humiliation, gossip, teasing, impressing others, peer pressure, online social life, pregnancy, high pressure to succeed, lack of support, and perfectionism are social stressors identified by Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center (2018).
With the research “Profiles of Adolescent Stress: The Development of the Stress Questionnaire,” conducted by Bryne DG, Davensport SC,and Mazanov J. (2007), findings showed that pressure from peers has a major contribution to increased stress. Insecure attachments to peers can be characterized by mistrust, poor communication, emotional detachment, and alienation. Generally, females have greater concern with the evaluation of peers suggesting that females may also experience greater distress from relationships and corresponding insecure attachments.(Armsden & Greeberg, 1987; Stroud, Salovey, & Epel, 2002)
According to A Better Day Counseling Services and Paula Sharp (2009), emotional stressors deals with emotional states. This frequently shows up in the feeling in some ways like negative self-talk, homesickness, guilt, anxiousness about grades and so on. Strangely enough, this kind of stress produces both the fear of failure and the fear of success.
Also, adolescents are also concerned with their physical appearance. Wang Ko (2000) said that girls feel upset more easily than boys because of their concerns about physical appearance. Girls may see themselves as “very ugly”, feel that they are too fat, too short, too high, or dislike their hair color or skin color.
Sexuality is associated with stress too. Students of sexual orientation are more likely to be harassed, excluded from the group and be discriminated compared to the heterosexuals (Rankin, Blumenfeld, Weber, & Frazer, 2010). In the study “Stressors for Gay Men and Lesbians: Life Stress, Gay-Related Stress, Stigma conciousness, and Depressive Symptoms” by R. Lewis, V. Derlega, J. Griffin andA. Krowinski (2003) , findings describe gay-related stress as stressors that are unique from the other sexual orientation. This stressors are rooted with homophobia, bullying, and “coming out.”
Gay related stress develops from an array of factors but according to NM Lewis’ “Community Cleavages: Gay and Bisexual Men’s Perception of Acceptance(2003) ,” it says causes of gay-related stress may vary but the thought and feelings of being a victim of discrimination plays a vital role in the stress associated with being gay.
Students of ethnic minorities may also be prone to additional stressors. The research “Minority Stress, Perceived Bicultural Competence, and Depressive Symptoms among Ethnic Minority College Students” conducted by M. Wei and K Liao Tells that there has been an increase of students identifying as ethnic minorities attending universities. Students who belonged in certain races may not feel welcomed on college campuses and are prone to experiencing due to discrimination. Such emotional stressors concerning racism are isolation, anger, anxiety, and discrimination. In addition to experiencing daily life stressors, some adolescents also face major life events that may cause serious stress to a person. Such critical events are often outside of an adolescent’s control and may be linked to greater social concern (e.g., poverty, community violence). This events such as parent’s divorce, death of a loved one, accidents, and crime involvement can cause intense, confusing, and frightening emotions according to Helpguide.org written by Melinda Smith, Lawrence Robinson, and Jeanne Segal (2018). This traumatizing events may cause shock, fear, sadness, helplessness, guilt, anger and shame which later can result to a greater stress and may affect a person for a long term of time.
Effects of Stress
It has been revealed that stress among students can have possibly anxious effects on their well-being. Auerabach ; Gramling (1998) pointed out that common psychological effects of stress can be connected to emotion and anxiety. It can be seen in the sudden change of emotions, behavior and other psychological responses of an individual according to Bernstein et.al. (2008). Stresshack (2015) observed effects of stresses such as difficulty in making decisions, overeating, feeling of being pressured, loss of sense of humor, poor concentration, and anxiety or depressions are one of the most common effects of stress.
On the other hand, a research conducted by A Better Day Counseling Services and Paula Sharp (2009), states that main causes of stress that most of the people have in common, tend to fall in three categories; Physical Stressors, Social Stressors, and Emotional Stressors.
Physical stress factors include all those things that cause stress on the body. That means chronic pain or illness,including allergies, can be a stress factor. Lack of sleep is one of the most common causes of stress on the body too, as is poor nutrition. Being subjected to too much noise or overcrowded conditions can often produce stress and is directly affected by the condition of dormitories, apartments and boarding houses. Social stressors are things that have to do with our connectedness (or lack of it) with other people and communities we live in. Social stressors are stresses that stem from one’s relationship with social environment in general. Such examples of social stressors from boarding students includes poor relationship with peers, uncooperative board mates, mixed boys-girls boarder and many more.
Emotional stressors deals with emotional states. This frequently shows up in the feeling in some ways like negative self-talk, homesickness, guilt, anxiousness about grades and so on. Strangely enough, this kind of stress produces both the fear of failure and the fear of success.`
Indeed, stress affects someone’s body, thoughts, and behavior (Mayo Clinic,2016). With that reason, the internet was filled up with different coping mechanisms and sorting out the effective ones is such a hard thing. Some example of these coping mechanisms can be found on the study of Brittany V. Hearon (2015) entitled, Stress and Coping in High School Students in Accelerated Academic Curricular Development Trends and Relationships with Students Success. Under the Physical Coping Mechanisms, it includes organizing the room, bringing electric fan, transferring to another boarding house, bringing different kinds of gadgets, bringing bedding and kitchen utensils, cabinet, and using of padlocks. There are also Coping Mechanisms in emotional aspects such as crying, listening to music, praying, reviewing, sleeping, looking at pictures of family and friends, watching movies, reading books, eating, confiding problems to someone, thinking positively, pampering self (getting massage, manicure/pedicure). Social coping mechanisms, includes hanging out with friends, texting/chatting with friend, special someone or parents, calling significant others, engaging in intimate relationship, reporting to landlady/landlord, sleeping in other boarding house, isolating one’s self, taking in alcohol, taking in drugs, ignoring, smoking, shopping, and athletic diversion. Since stress is inevitable at school, there are also coping mechanisms on Academic Stressors such as, time and task management, sorting out priorities, making to-do-list, scheduling and planning, sleeping, task with friends ad classmates, seek academic support, handle problems alone, cognitive reappraisal (telling yourself you can do it), ask help from family, reduce efforts on school works and cheat during desperate times.
Susan Folkman and Richard Lazarus defined coping as the constant changing cognitive and behavior efforts to manage specific external and internal demands that are appraised as taxing. It is a respond to loss, a technique to retain the balance, and a human’s approach that intends to solve problems by taking the right approaches and actions.
Coping mechanisms are ways wherein external and internal stress is managed, adapted to, or acted upon. It also refers to the specific efforts, both behavioral and psychological, that people employ to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize stressful events.
There are three methods of coping according to Laureate Education, Inc., 2012. These are problem-solving coping strategies, emotion-focused coping strategies, and biological-focused coping strategies.
Problem-solving coping strategy is the effort to do something active to alleviate stressful circumstances. It targets the causes of stress in practical ways which tackles the problem or stressful situation that is causing stress, consequently directly reducing the stress. Its aim is to remove or reduce the stressor (I. Pavlov).
According to the study, it mainly focuses on the changing or modifying the cause of stress and some strategies like information seeking to reduce and avoid the cause of stress. Its effectiveness depends on whether the stressor can be managed by changing it.
Carver (2011) also found out that problem-solving coping strategy had a biological effects on stress, thus it lowers the cortisol levels and promotes recovery from the stress.
Emotion-focused Coping Strategies are effective in the management of unchangeable stressors (Baldacchino ; Draper, 2001; DeGraff ; Schaffer, 2008). These coping mechanisms involve a cognitive reappraisal process that includes self-reflection and taking control over one’s emotions (Carver, 2011). This kind of coping strategy involve efforts to regulate the consequences of stressful events.
Emotional Coping combined with actively expressing and processing emotions has psychological adjustment benefits (Stanton et al.2000). It increases sense of pleasure, positivity, and contentment in our lives and thus enables us to increase our ability to focus on that which we can change. This coping strategy helps us feel better and often get utilized when the problem is out of our control and aids us in becoming less emotionally we face everyday.
In addition, Stanton, Kirk, Cameron, and Danoff-Burg states that emotion-focused coping can facilitate expressing and processing emotions as a prelude to reappraising unchangeable stressors. This kind of coping strategy increases the sense of positivity and contentment in our lives and thus enables us to increase our ability to focus on the things we want to change.
Dusek et al., 2008 defined Biology-Focused Coping Strategy as a strategy that focuses on the relationship between the mind and body and works toward affecting this relationship with relaxation techniques to have an effect to physiological responses.
It also involves utilizing techniques that modify behavior and affect the physiological stress response. For example, if an individual is experiencing stress because he is worried about his inability to relax, biology-focused coping strategy will be beneficial to him because he has the potential to lower down his blood pressure be able to relax. It is because biology-focused coping provokes a relaxation response, which lowers stress.
The focus of coping must consider the changeability of the stressor, the perception or emotional reaction to the stressor, and the capacity of the human body to manage stress through behaviors that can induce some changes. The focus must also consider the unique circumstances of the individual. Providing individuals with appropriate adaptive coping skills can reduce negative health outcomes and increase the ability to manage ongoing stress (D. Stone, 2002) .
Upon gathering related studies about different stressors boarding students encounter everyday and how they cope up from it; the proponents noticed gaps that the researchers may fill as they make their study. The proponents noticed that most of the related studies only focuses on the causes and effects of stress and is not always particular to boarding students. Also, most of the studies that shows coping mechanisms provides inadequate coping mechanisms that boarding students may use. Also, most of the coping mechanisms are not specifically applicable here in the Philippines. This study focuses mainly on the coping mechanisms of boarding students towards different stressors they encounter everyday. Due to the growing number of boarding students around the country, the researchers aim to provide coping mechanisms that is applicable here in the Philippines. This study also wants to find out whether there is a significant difference between the coping mechanisms between male and female. On the other hand, the study is only limited inside the premises of Saint Mary’s University, which may be the study’s weakness. Also, the researchers have insufficient experience and background in making a study.
This chapter contains the processes in gathering information needed for the study. It encompasses methods, procedures, instruments and other elements that will be used to conduct the study about the effective coping mechanisms of boarding students on academic and household stresses.
The descriptive method of research will be used in this study. In this study, the descriptive method was used to seek effective coping mechanisms towards the different stressors encountered by Senior High School Marians. Since the study aims to determine the effective coping mechanisms that was being observed by the boarding students, the researchers used questionnaires to obtain informations and data from respondents as a basis in answering the research problems. This data was launched in the year 2018 at Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya. The gathering of data was done by distributing questionnaires to the respondents.
The research will take place in Saint Mary’s University of Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya particularly in the two buildings of Senior High School Department, the Joseph Van Den Daelen and the new building. Saint Mary’s University of Bayombong, is a Catholic and missionary institution .
SUBJECTS OF THE STUDY
The respondents of this study are the students of Saint Mary’s University in Senior High School Department, both grade 11 and grade 12, who are temporarily living in a boarding house. The researchers aims to have a total of hundred respondents for this study. The researchers will determine first if the respondent were a boarding student since the questionnaire is all about the stressors and coping mechanisms which is usually observed by the boarding students.
In gathering the data from the respondents, the researchers will be using questionnaire as their research instrument. It was a revised questionnaire that was being published in www.scribd.com and was uploaded by the user named k.n.e.d. on March 11, 2011. The first content of the instrument is the demographics or background profile of the respondents. Then it will be followed by the different kinds of stressors and coping mechanisms which was being placed on a table according to their categories. The questionnaire will be a rating-based scale meaning the respondents will rate their experiences. One as the lowest and five as the highest.
The questionnaire will be created by determining the main focus /idea of the research which is effective coping mechanisms. After determining the main focus, the researchers will formulate and construct its contents. Determining who will be the respondents will also be a factor in creating these questionnaires because they should have the same concerns/experiences related to the chosen topic.
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURES
After the validation of the tools, the researcher will be going to secure a written permit in the administration of Saint Mary’s University Senior High School Department for the permission to conduct a survey. Thereafter, the researchers will go and visit classrooms to explain the purpose of the research to the respondents and make sure that the selected students are apt to the criteria. The researchers will collect data from the respondents through questionnaire which consists of their name, age, gender, and other basic information as well as questions regarding different stressors and coping mechanisms which will be rated by the respondents from 1-5. The questionnaire will be collected an hour or day after the distribution depending on the demand of time by the respondents. Soon, when all questionnaires are answered and collected, the researcher will check, tally, interpret, and analyze the gathered data.
Upon gathering the data needed for the study, the researchers are then tasked to interpret the data they have gathered with the means of different statistical tools. With the help of their knowledge from their subject Statistics and Probability, the researchers would be able to analyze the data gathered. The researchers will use the following statistical tools to interpret the data they have gathered. The mean or the “average” will be used to determine the overall trend of a data. It will also give an overview of the data the researchers have gathered. The researchers will also make use of the Standard Deviation which measures the spread of data around the mean. This is useful for determining the dispersion of data points. The researchers will gather data from a large amount of respondents that’s why they might seek help from Sample Size Determination which enables the researchers to easily determine the right size for a sample and to make the data collection statistically significant. Of course, the researchers need to test their Hypothesis or Hypothesis Testing. In this part of the data analysis, the researchers assess if their intellectual guess is actually true for the data set or population.
The researcher will organize the datas they have gathered based on the respondents answers in the questionnaire. After they have organized the datas gathered, they will compare the respondents’ answers and determine the most dominant answer. Then, the researchers will then make an inference based on the answers they have gotten. After which, they will be able to test their hypothesis if it is actually true, having the datas gathered to warrant it.
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