BTEC LEVEL 3 B90 GRP A HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE
UNIT 1: DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN H&SC
Task 1: Role of effective communication and interpersonal communication in health and social care.
This Induction pack aims to provide information regarding the importance of effective communication in the health and social care industry as well as providing information on barriers to communication and how these barriers can be overcome by service providers during communication processes with service users or other service providers. The pack will also include descriptions and detailed explanations of the various forms and contexts that are used during communication as well as an outline of the two communication theories that are used.
First of all, the definition of effective communication is a verbal speech or other methods of relaying information that gets a point across. An example of effective communication is when you talk in clear and simple term.
The different context of communication within health and social care are, one-to-one communication, group communication, informal communication, formal communication, communication between colleagues and multi-agency working. One-to-one communication is when two people are having a conversation. An example of one-to-one communication is greeting the other individual by saying “hello, how are you?” by greeting the individual this means that you are setting the atmosphere before you discuss the main point of the conversation. Say for instance in a care home, the care worker is giving the patient a bath and the care worker comes in and starting undressing the patient without any other conversation, this will come across a being disrespectful. Group communication is when you are sending a message to more than more receivers.
Group communication is when more than two people communicate. In health and social care, care workers have meetings to discuss the treatment that they will be giving to their patientsInformal communication is when people know each other well. For example, you have friends and family who knows each other well or even a family friend that knows you very well. When you are around the people that know you, they tend to speak in a certain way that you other would not understand you. Also, people who live in the same local environment would not be able to understand what has been said. An example for this is, someone who lives in New Castle might say things like “you alight divi” someone who belongs in that category will understand what is meant by that greeting so speaking informally to someone, they will not understand the informal communication of people from different social groups.
In health and social you need to able to communicate formally. For example, you are going to visit the GP and you are greeting the doctor, first of you going to say ‘good morning or good evening’ ‘how are you doing today’ you are not going to approach the doctor and say ‘listen mate, man’s here innit’. When you show formal communication, it simply means that you are showing respect to the individual. Approaching a professional or someone who works within professional setting, you should not speak informally to any as it may come across as disrespectful and being disrespectful sometimes leads to conflict. The right way to speak to people who are not your family member is to speak formally.
FORMS OF COMMUNICATION
Body language could give a negative sign to the individual and it could show that the person is not interested in what the care worker has to say. Moreover to keep body language respectful the individual should not fold their arms and slide down on their chairs as it would look inappropriate. For example, in a health care setting you, the care worker who is the professional should always have a positive body language as it can come across as rude towards the service user. Also, if its case where the service user is not comfortable talking about something it sometimes show through their body language and it will then me the care workers job to make sure that they are confortable speaking about their issue (the care worker will need to indicate a good body language which will show the service user that they are willing to help them with whatever problem they are going through)
Written communication involves communicate that makes the use of written words. Written communication is used in different ways by writing, for example, formal letter to inform your hospital to inform higher professionals about the problems the individual is having. Also, written communication provides detailed information, can be faxed and sent to different people which means that it is time consuming and it can be permanently recorded
Gesture is using hand movements can help to understand what the person is saying. Also, using hand gestures is natural for everyone. Some people do hand gesture and xhdfdoesn’t even recognise when they are doing it. However, in some cases using hand gestures could be insulting to someone. For example, showing putting up the middle finger, showing the middle finger is really disrespectful. In contrast to this having thumbs up and thumbs down indicates good or bad.
Facial expression: Non-verbal communication includes facial expression. Facial expression conveys a lot of emotions such as, happy, sad, angry, surprise and fear. Having a conversation with someone is one thing but changing a facial expression could immediately tell someone how you are feeling indicates how an individual is feelings and how it allows them to express whilst they are communicating. For example, receiving good news means that your facial expression will enlighten how you feel and how happy you feel.
Eye contact: Eye contact is very important and it’s the state in which two people are aware of looking directly into one another’s eyes. Some people find it very hard to look at others directly in their eyes. Not giving eye contact can come across as rude. However, if the individual cannot look them in their eyes the other person may feel offended; they may feel that the individual is not interested in what they have to say. On the other hand, if someone can look directly in the other person’s eye then it shows that the individual is interested in the conversation.
Aspects of Interpersonal interactions/ Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
Verbal communication is a use of reverberations and words to express you. For example, having a conversation someone. Either one-to-one or a group interaction. Whist communicating with others you should have a clear speech and using skills for keeping a conversation going. You should have a content and lastly and ending. For example, a “bye or see you later”. On the other hand, Non-verbal is a form of communication not using words for example, eye contact. Eye contact is a non-verbal communication as it says a lot about how you are feeling. Say for instance at a resident care home someone with (visual impairment) who is fully blind and they cannot see but they can hear very well. For example, the care worker could be speaking to her about something exciting (doing an activity). Instantly the individual facial expression will change immediately because she’s excited. Her excitement will indicate to the care worker that she is enthusiastic all because of her facial expression.
Non-verbal communication includes posture. Posture is the way you sit or stand. The way you stand or the way you sit can send messages. For example, a person may have a closed posture (crossing their legs with arms folded. This symbolises a defensive or negative attitude. Non-verbal communication includes facial expression. Facial expression conveys a lot of emotions such as, happy, sad, angry, surprise and fear. Having a conversation with someone is one thing but changing a facial expression could immediately tell someone how you are feeling. For example, two people are having a conversation, but the conversation is about their birthday. Their facial expression will change to happy because their excited. If someone is feeling sad you can automatically tell that the person is not feeling fine.
I will now discuss the 2 theories of communication by Argyle’s and Tuckman, and I will also, discuss what happens at each stage of the cycle.
At the first stage your ideas occur which means that the person is the person is thinking about how they are going to send the message. This depends on the individual who is receiving the message; the individual could be someone who is visually impaired, picture and objects of reference, British sign language etc. they will need to know how they are going to send the message. “The written words, spoken words, and nonverbal language selected are paramount in ensuring the receiver interprets the message as intended by the sender” (Burnett ; Dollar, 1989)At the second stage the message encoded which means the sender has to be able to begin by deciding what she/she wants to transmit. Whatever the sender decides to send is based on what they believe on what the topic is about. So a good way for the sender to improving encoding their message is to mentally visualize the communication from the receiver’s point of view. The next stage of the cycle is the message is coded, this is meant by the message has been sent to the receiver. Also, the sender has also thought about how they’re going to send the message to the receiver. Once the message has been coded this means that the sender should ask question to him/her different questions, so that they understand what has been sent to them. The message is then received; the receiver begins to take in what the sender has said which mean that the receiver starts to understand the message in their own way. In order to make the communication successful the receiver has to correctly interpret the sender’s message. Lastly the idea has understood, at this stage the receiver is going to response to the message. Once the receiver is going to response they need to respond in some way and signals that response the sender. The signal may take the form of a spoken comment, a written message, a smile, or some other action. “Even a lack of response, is in a sense, a form of response” (Bovee & Thill, 1992). Without a response, the sender cannot confirm that the receiver has interpreted the message correctly.
02514221. Forming stage- At this stage this is where all the group members meet for the first time, they will introduce themselves and they will also ask basic questions about what the group discussions is going to be about. Also, the group leader introduces themselves towards the group.
001. Forming stage- At this stage this is where all the group members meet for the first time, they will introduce themselves and they will also ask basic questions about what the group discussions is going to be about. Also, the group leader introduces themselves towards the group.
Bruce Tuckman Group stages
-32385965203. Norming stage- At this stage all group members have made final agreements and the group will then start to work together. Each person from the group will express their thoughts and feelings and they will have successful plans.
003. Norming stage- At this stage all group members have made final agreements and the group will then start to work together. Each person from the group will express their thoughts and feelings and they will have successful plans.
-42545337292. Storming stage- At this stage, all the group members will start to get comfortable with each other and the topic of the conversation could start to have disagreement with each other and having disagreement could lead to conflicts. At the end of this stage, all members within the group will come to a conclusion and the conversation will end with everyone being on good terms.
002. Storming stage- At this stage, all the group members will start to get comfortable with each other and the topic of the conversation could start to have disagreement with each other and having disagreement could lead to conflicts. At the end of this stage, all members within the group will come to a conclusion and the conversation will end with everyone being on good terms.
-43031614456 4. Performing stage- At the stage the group will then start to work effectively and have relationships with the entire group members have become more comfortable, therefore all members will be able to be more content and focus on achieving their goals.
00 4. Performing stage- At the stage the group will then start to work effectively and have relationships with the entire group members have become more comfortable, therefore all members will be able to be more content and focus on achieving their goals.
I think that to have an effective communication you have to be able to communicate
with different people. It is also, important that when you are communicating effectively you have to make sure that are using different context and different forms of communication. I think that the two theories are very useful as it break own as to what happens in a one-to-one communication and what happens in a group communication. Successful effective communication within the health and social care organisations tends to lead from one implementation straight to the communication process. Everyone within the health and social care will learn to improve their skills over time, by them improving their communication skills they are preventing different barriers. As we know preventing communication barriers, they have a greater chance of being successful.
In this task I had to participate in a one-to-one interaction and group interaction and I will have to discuss how well I did with my partner/partners and what type of communication skills I used and also I will also evaluate possible influences in each interactions.
Brief outline of the scenario
In this 1:1 interaction, my partner and I will be playing the role of a counsellor having a session with a client. This will take place in a counselling office and they are there to have a discussion on how the client is coping with drug withdrawal.
Topic: Counsellor having a session with client – Drug withdrawal
Justice: Good morning Dyma
Dyma: how are you doing, I hope this session helps me.
Justice: yes, I’m fine I really do hope I can help.
Dyma: where do we start?
Justice: First of all I would like you to tell me how you’re doing.
Dyma: I feel that since I’ve given up drug, i feel a lot better within myself that i know i can return healthy how i was before i started taking drugs
Justice: Do you feel yourself going back to your old ways at times or do you feel like you are in total control
Dyma: To be honest i don’t like feel like myself 100% but hopefully i get there eventually but the one thing i would say is that when i go out with friends, i tend to get triggered by their actions
Justice: So what I am hearing from what you just told me is that even though you feel as if you have gotten better, you also have some hard times when you are interacting with your friends because of their actions.
Dyma: Yes, i really do and i don’t know if my friends need help like how i needed it
Dyma: Are there any solution you have for this?
Justice: Well…(putting down the note book and giving eye contact) I feel that because you do not feel 100% at the moment then I feel you should learn how to deal with your situation at first and then take step by step actions when being around your friends because it is very easy to go back to your old ways where you of course don’t want to be when you are around influences that could set you back
Justice: Try seeing if you can get a friend who is influential in a positive way and if you ever feel yourself going to make bad choices then call them and they can help you make a good choice, I understand that and i will try my best to take on board what you are truly saying to me. I’m happy to come and talk about my issues in confidence coz in the past i had problems opening up
Justice: I am glad that you are at a point where you are comfortable because at the start you was a bit hostile but I hope you know I’m just here to help, if you have any other questions then please know you can contact me or email me
Dyma: Can u write your email down for me please, I have already got your number.
Justice: Yeah (writes email and both get up and walk towards the door) is there any other questions or thoughts you would like to express before we end this session
Dyma: No, i should be fine for now but I’ll give you a ring if I’m unsure
Justice: Alright no problem (both get up and walk to the door giving a hand shake and a smile)..(Dyma walks out).
During my one-to-one interaction with my partner, the topic was about drug withdrawal. For this interaction I was the patient and Justice was the counsellor. I felt like the interaction was really good as I felt that I have used useful communication skills. First of all I used good body language. I used my body language very well as I was not being defiant towards the counsellor. Also, when the counsellor invited me into the room she offered me to take a seat and once i did before I sat down she shook my hands and so I do. When I sat down, I was not crossing my arms, resting my head on the table, puffin, etc. I simply sat down and show that I was actively listening. Showing that you are actively listening suggest that I was actually taking in everything what the counsellor was telling me. I also, used facial expression during the conversation as I was showing a happy face and not showing a face that does not seem interested in the conversation. For example, I said to the counsellor ‘I really hope you can help me in today’s sessions. She then replied ‘that is what I’m here for to help you to overcome issues that you are going through’ instantly I face expression changed from being happy to excited, reason for this is because the thought of you knowing a situation can be fixed shows that there is a relief of your chest and you and no longer have to worry about anything. I will say that I was not giving eye contact as I should have done. I also used hand gesture when I was speaking to the counsellor, there is absolutely nothing wrong using hand gestures, I use hand gestures all time not knowing I am actually doing it, the reason I felt that hand gesture was important during my interaction is because using means that I know what I am talking about and it helps me to my points quicker. I only have a one or two eye contact as I am not confortable looking in the people’s eyes for a long period a time. It is ok to give eye contact and look away but for me it’s a situation where I will give eye contact but then look away for the longest time and then go back giving eye contact. Not giving eye contact could come across as rude, it not that I was being rude, it is something that I physically cannot do. I will eventually need to work on it because it will come to a point where I will need to give eye contact. Another communication skill I have used was voice tone. During my session I was speaking quiet as the atmosphere was calm and I did not need to shout. Also due to me speaking quietly and calmly I noticed that the counsellor was being more friendly which suggest to me that she was almost speaking to me like I was her best friend which is a good thing. I was not using reflective listening as much as I should have been. At one point I was day dreaming which was rude as I was not actively listening at that point so if the counsellor was meant to ask me a question based on what she had said, I would not be able to give her the answer she is looking for. At the same time what the counsellor should have done is to actually make sure I understood everything she was saying to me. On the other hand, the skill that I used more effectively was gesture, I felt using gesture was effective for me as it help me to get to my point much quicker and also, using it meant that whilst I was speaking to the counsellor it gives that impression to her that I was really into the conversation and she knew where I was coming from.
Brief outline of the scenario
In this 1:1 interaction, my partner and I will be playing the role of a counsellor having a session with a client. This will take place in a counselling office and they are there to have a discussion on the client having relationship issues due to past event/relationships in her life.
Topic: Counsellor having a session with client – Relationship issues
Counsellor calls client into the office
Counsellor-Dyma: “Good morning Justice, How are you today and what can I do for you today?”
Justice: “Good morning, I’m not doing so well and I hope you can help me with my relationship issues.” (Looking nervous)
Dyma: “Aww sorry to hear that…so tell me what is going on with your relationship.” (Ready to take notes)
Justice: I have trust issues and it is really affecting me as I cannot move on having new relationship because of the past.
Dyma: First of all if you not communicating with the other person you are more likely to feel that you can’t trust your partner. You have to be able to communicate as communication is the key to every relationship even with your own family.
Justice: At times I feel that even when I’m communicating, in the back of my mind, I feel my partner is up to something.
Dyma: Personally I would say that because you have this mentality of having trust issues you tend to fall back on the past and its only you can change that. How long do you talk to a person before you get into a relationship with them?
Dyma: I would say you should give relationship for a break, clear your mind, do things that you would normally do and when you think your ready you can put yourself back out there to see if you find the perfect person.
Justice: I hope so, can I please take your number so that I can call up if there is any problem and maybe if I need a next session I can pop by and we talk again.
Dyma: sure. My number is 02988888123
Justice: alright, see you later and thank you.
Dyma: no need to thank me it’s my job but your more than welcome, bye
At this stage I was the counsellor and the topic that Justice and I were talking about was relationship. I would say that I was showing a form of care presence which is almost like putting you in someone else’s shoe. I really did put myself in my client shoe because she was having a rough tie trying to figure out why she had trust issues within her relationship. However, although I created some form of care presence it shows that I might have been in the same situations which then indicate to the client that I am there to help her but at the same time; I am there to comfort her. For example she said ‘I have trust issues and it is really affecting me as I cannot move on having new relationship because of the past’. I then replied and said ‘First of all if you not communicating with the other person you are more likely to feel that you can’t trust your partner. You have to be able to communicate as communication is the key to every relationship even with your own family. What I am trying to get across is that my response that I have given to my client, you can see where I try to a give her advice and it is something that I may have faced that has allowed me to give her that response to her question. I showed facial expression when I was speaking to my client because when she was telling me the issues, it was empathy that took over that allowed my facial expression. I was sad for her when she was telling me her problems but at the same I had to remember that I was a professional and I could not be sad all the way through as it may indicate negativity towards the patience and the atmosphere would be very depression. I felt that having a depress atmosphere meant that the client would have not be able to get everything out as she was relying on me for help. I did not give eye contact whilst I was talking to the client because I do find it very hard to look people in their eyes whilst speaking to them. Although I didn’t give eye contact, I am very sure that my client did not feel uncomfortable.
Brief summary about the group interaction: There is a little girl who is African-Caribbean and she has been in care for 3 years and after 3years she has been fostered by an English couple who has be caring for her. They now want to adopt her.
I was in a group of 5 and during out discussion I felt that the topic we had to discuss about was really interesting. However, the people within the group did make valid points. All group members were focused and we all stuck to the topic and no one was being quiet. I believe that everyone did actively listen to each other and no one was speaking over each other. We all took turns to speak and after one person speak about something, someone else either add on their point a view about what they think or they make a new point about the discussion. Furthermore, I think we all knew that if we allowed each other to speak there would be no form of conflicts between each other. Even though everyone has something to say, they did not speak as much as they should. In other words it could have been they are shy, they are not good at debating or they might not feel comfortable telling their point of view. Personally because I love debating/discussion I always have a lot of things to say about certain topics. This topic in particular I really did enjoy it because out of everyone in the group I mostly done all the talking, alongside with a group member by the name of Maria. Ruth, Ulas, and Shandy did not speak as much. For example, when Shandy started the conversation, Maria stated a lot of points and from what Maria has said, I then added on my own point of view. Ruth and Ulas did not say as much as they should have, but then I personally felt that the conversation was not going well as I did feel that the others did not really know what they were talking about. I then had to step back in the discussion to make it livelier so that everyone else could really come back into the conversation to participate more. I did this by suggesting different types of questions. I had to be careful because I did not want to go off task, so what I done was ask question around the topic to kind of make the discussion more understandable/interested. I type of question I asked was, ‘how do you think the child would feel knowing when they grow older they are going to have a lot of question about why they are in the situation that they are in?, ‘do you feel the child would stick around after they find out why they are being adopted?’ When I asked those type of type of question I realised that Ruth, Ulas and Shandy were answering them, not only were they answering them, they were adding their own point of view towards it. The points that they were making too them back into in the conversation about the topic. In contrast to this, I then noticed after a while that the conversation was going back to the way it was. I then went ahead to fully dominate myself for the conversation. Once I dominated myself, it had a great impact on the group. I went ahead and I started telling them about a programme I was watching. The programme was about a brother and sister, who got adopted by a white family. The family lives in a mansion and the family takes good care of them, they treat them equally and they make sure that they treat them like how they would treat their own. The children both call them mum and dad and the family with the biological children, their children are not mean towards them, and they share everything with them. Also, the family still makes them interact with their own culture and one of the things they did was the mother brought someone from the same background and the little girl and she made her get her hair done by the person who she bought in. As for the little boy the father takes him to the barber to get his hair cut. Once I told the group about the programme, I did pick up that everyone really got involved, as for Ulas and Ruth they did speak more about the topic, but I think that if I didn’t dominate myself I think the group discussion would not have gone too well, but I am pleased to say that our group discussion was truly successful.
Factors about the environment for one-to-one and group interactions
When Justice and I were doing our one-to-one reaction we noticed that they were not a lot of noise but there was a bit of noise in the background which was coming from the corridor as students were walking pass and talking. The noise in the background did not distract us from our conversation as it was minor noises. I personally did not even realise that they were minor noises in the background I heard everything what Justice was saying me. Also, even though I was speaking very quietly, Justice manages to hear me clear. I am not sure if she was not forcing herself to hear me or if she could just hear me in general.
Bovee, C.L., & Thill, J.V. (1992). Business Communication Today. NY, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Burnett, M.J., & Dollar, A. (1989). Business Communication: Strategies for Success. Houston, Texas: Dane.