1.1. Research Purpose and Structure This study analyses how one of the masters of the Korean realist cinema, South Korean film director Shin Sang-ok, brought innovative and progressive realist movie elements into the schematic discourse of the North Korean cinematic industry. Hence, the paper seeks which meaningful realist elements could survive and remain as a newly-adjusted North Korean film factors after the escape of director Shin in 1986. The main query if his film presence generated significant and permanent groundbreaking film tendency that could transform the North Korean film direction. Or, on the contrary, was it only a temporary experimental period of the 1980s that could show a limited term alternative way for North Korean filmmaking process The other doubt of the new phenomenon, which the study aims to search answers, is if this new approach mainly focused on Shins personal cinematic achievements or if it could be utilized and inherited by future North Korean filmmakers. Throughout the dissertation, there are critical thoughts of the DPRKs cinematic style, contents and approaches. However, they are far more delicated than the general views and opinions on North Korean cinema sometimes also in scholarship- commonly applied to characterize the DPRK itself. The most problematic issue with these one-sided characterizations is that these opinion-makers still consider North Korea not as a sovereign country but as an enemy state, which results the possibility of loss of the objectivity. Note again that the potential criticisms emerging in this paper do not reflect the authors personal attitude towards North Korean films. The critical voices function to highlight the dichotomies between the mainstream North Korean film discourse and the new film trends went through during the 1980s brought mainly by Shin. Chapter two and three contain the main historical and theoretical framework of the study. The first section address cinema in general as a propaganda tool (2.1.). From the following sections, the concrete Korean cinematic historical background is aimed to be detailed, beginning from the Japanese colonial rule (2.2.1.) and mentioning the first signs of leftist Korean cinema (2.2.2.). In order to understand the changes brought by Shin into the DPRK, the main dominant ideologies, namely socialist realism and later Juche realism, have to be considered. Therefore, the historical background part also attempts to discuss about these doctrines (2.3. and 2.4.) Additionally, the main influential film movement for Shin, neo(new)-realism, need to be also clarified (3.1.). Moreover, chapter two and three also aim to depict the main outlines of these film movements through comparative movie analysis of different interpretations on the Korean classic folklore, Chunhyang-jeon. I intentionally chose this specific work as it played a key role in Shins cinematic activity on both sides of the peninsula. Therefore, the movie analysis reflects on Shins different visual forms and approaches on the same topic, placing it into different political environments. The arguments and implication in chapter four and five discuss the cultural and social effects generated by Shin during the Thaw-policy of the DPRK initiated in the 1980s. Chapter four aims to depict his new elements through his first successes, including Manchurian movies, however, the focal point of the chapter is the analysis of Shins North Korean Chunhyang-jeon movie adaptation. Even though Shin Sang-ok was part of the relaxation process of the 1980s, which he did not begin, still, he was probably one of the most significant and visible player of this period who became also an individual film innovator and could give a possible role model for the future cultural policy makers. Therefore, chapter five focuses on his cinematic and social legacy and attempts to illustrate Shins technical and social influences in the post-Shin era. Chapter six details the changing social and film environment starting from the so-called Arduous March (1994-1998) period, which automatically generated several new tendencies in economy, agriculture, society and culture. The massive flow of external information mainly from South Korea and the United States echoes the filmmaking approach of Shin Sang-ok with his bright images, fast cuts and formalist special effects, which speeded up the socio-cultural changes in the country. 1.2. Research Questions In this thesis, I touch upon several debates in North Korean studies concerning mainly the cinematic and partly the socio-cultural influences of Shin Sang-oks North Korean movies. The most notably studies of discourses and representations stress that he and his movies were only a temporarily but significant- parts of North Korean audiovisual culture during its opening period in the 1980s. Obviously, one could not expect that Shins activities could generate a complete transition in the field of cinema. At the same time, other experts -especially Steven Chung- underlines Shins new movie approaches and merits related to film forms and style. In fact, both opinions are correct since the North Korean film discourse could not achieve revolutionary sudden reforms after his escape despite his undeniable unusual film techniques and new perspectives. Nevertheless, modernized films of Shin surprised and attracted the North Korean audience as they significantly varied from the movies they had watched before. The citizens, who were the targets of the official film propaganda, were shortly able to learn how to become indifferent to the dominant film discourse and how to select their preferable parts. Since basis of comparison was able to emerge due to other style of Shin-productions-, people became film experts who could filter the unnecessary contents and ignore the literal meanings of ritualized contents. In this study, I combine the dominant North Korean film discourse on values and outlines of Juche, represented by the movie adaptation of Chunhyang-jeon in the mainstream North Korean frame (1980), with the new approaches of Shin Sang-ok represented by his version of the same Korean folklore (1984). By result, one could realize how dominant discourse was shifted and trickled down during the decades into shaping the film industry in a less politicized and more humanized form. The research perspective can be categorized in two main groups of research questions, in which the first one details the official film discourse, while the second one discusses the new perspectives of Shin Sang-ok. 1., How did the appearance of director Shin Sang-ok change the direction of the North Korean film industry (1983-1986) Was it a real new realist change or a temporary one that focused more on Shin and not the whole North Korean movie industry In addition, was it an automatic continuation of innovation of the North Korean cinema in the frame of Kim Jong Ils goals to flourish and promote the reputation of North Korean film industry in the 1980s 2., What kind of innovation can be observed during Shins North Korean period How these new movies were different from the mainstream typical North Korean movies 3., Could Shins new realism be a significant impact on the North Korean film industry in the post-Shin era or the direction turned back to the hardcore style of the pre-Shin era What kind of new film elements of Shin could survive and what could not in the post-Shin era 4., How can one define the development of North Korean film industry since its birth until nowadays Was there any innovation in the contents and messages of the films or only in technical development Was it a static or a constant change carried out by a specific tendency ordered from above 5., Can the North Korean movies be originated purely from Soviet socialist realism or were there other Asian especially Japanese and Chinese- impacts What kind of special North Korean components -influenced by Juche realism- can be found in the presence of film arts Do they show real difference from their Soviet prototype socialist realism 6., How North Korean film trends have been influenced by Shins movies and the external influx since the period of Arduous March Can the films be helpful tools in the inter-Korean rapprochement policy 1.3. Research Methodology 1.4. Scope of Research The reason for choosing Shin Sang-ok, as the key-figure of this paper, is that he was the first pioneer from the outside world who played a significant role in audiovisual- and cultural changes inside the North Korean society. Although he was only one part of the relaxation and opening policy of the DPRK in the 1980s, still, he could show different and more liberal approach, style and language in filmmaking that could open many North Korean eyes. The study contains three sharply divided parts along the three types of realisms that affected North Korean cinema, namely (1) the socialist realism inherited from the Stalinist Soviet Union (also mixed with Chinese and Japanese influences) (2) the special way of North Korean realistic form, called Juche realism that is very similar to its Soviet prototype though (3) neo-realism, originated by Italian neo-realist school, impacted on Shin Sang-ok and applied in his South- and North Korean movies. In addition, the study is divided into three main time periods focusing on the appearance of the celebrated South Korean film ambassador of neo-realism, Shin Sang-ok. Chapter two is based on the cinematic development of Korean peninsula in the pre-Shin period, while the chapter three and four underline the film activities during the Shin-era on both sides. Consequently, chapter five and six stress the transformation of North Korean cinematic and social issues in the post-Shin era. Therefore, the paper can give (1) a brief chart of evolution on South- and North Korean cinema, highlighting their main contrasts along with the two opponent political ideologies emerging on the two sides of the peninsula. The dissertation can also show (2) how Shin Sang-ok could bring additional, unusual and advanced elements to the North Korean film trend as Shin was abducted and ordered to produce a new type of cinema in North Korea. The main question is (3) how his legacy could survive after his escape at the late 1980s. Furthermore, the conclusion discusses how North Korean film industry has been changed by in the influence of the southern cultural pollution since the period of Arduous March, which has given a huge opportunity for illegal accession of external information for the North Koreans, giving a more objective picture of the events of the outside world. My hypothesis in the conclusion part focuses on the cultural, social and political changes that can be possibly achieved in the hermit kingdom in a long term The nowadays info-culture and infotainment changes cannot be ignored in the fastest changing society as these tendencies can result a domino-effect towards the regimes smoother and more natural internal disruption than changing the system in a much radical and extreme way. This part reflects to the process that Shin began in the 1980s and evolved after the hardship period. 1.5. Literature Overview and Significance of Study Remarkably, little work has been done outside of Korea on this colorful cinematic atmosphere. North Korean films are significantly underrepresented in scholarship, at least in English language materials, since sophisticated readings at this field are hardly available although the theater scholar, Kim Suk-youngs book, Illusive Utopia Theater, Film, and Everyday Performance in North Korea (2010), is a pioneering work in this field. Another South Korean scholar, Hyangjin Lee, who is also one of the most often quoted experts of North Korean cinema, has written one of the most extensive academic study of North Korean cinema, titled Contemporary Korean Cinema Identity, Culture, Politics (2000). This work compares among others the northern and southern versions of Chunhyang-jeon adaptations, the different representations of war movies and the contrasting class representation on both sides of the peninsula. Jane Portal and Johannes Schnherr have also published books at the field, titled Art under Control (2000) and North Korean Cinema A History (2012). However, the former does not focus exclusively on cinema although the latter one is a substantial work that lists the most important works and main periods of North Korean cinematic history, without aiming of doing it in academic style though. Likewise Steven Chung stresses in his dissertation, I agree with the fact that Shin could step over and challenge his conventional and conservative limits. Thus, he was able not only to develope the mid-1980s of North Korean cinema -even though it was a temporary change- but his films also brought changes in fields of culture and society. Chung also confirms that Shin went through the similar process previously in the South by forming the national discourse and transforming the post-colonial/postwar subjectivity. The goal of the study is much more to concentrate on Shin Sang-oks some selected works shot in North Korea and emphasize their innovations comparing to the previous film works. The study tries to overcome the misconceptions on the North Korean film production, society, identity and way of thinking. In addition, my aim is to widen the study of North Korean cinema in English, focusing on Shins film activities, since reliable sources on this topic are quite limited. Nevertheless, I also used the sources like Chung did for his dissertation, although they provide more details about national cinema of South Korea and its different historical stages. Chapter 2 North Korean Cinematic Art 2.1. Film as Propaganda Tool in Totalitarian System Before discussing the early period of colonial Korean film, it is necessary to mention briefly the cinematic propaganda purposes of totalitarian regimes as North Korean films and media are often generalized in Western media as propaganda. On the one hand, it is true since the DPRK has built a state-produced, centralized cinema, which has been mostly recognized as an important political educational tool rather than a tool for entertainment or pure art. At the same time, considering North Korean cinema as only propaganda is an oversimplification and this approach does not provide to see the picture as a whole. Indeed, North Korean movies contain political purposes since they have targeted function to praise the country with its leader and the Party. In certain respects, South Korean military government used films to enlighten the masses for political education purposes. After a brief definition of propaganda, I outline the propaganda elements of Soviet cinema as they were the forerunner of North Korean movies. Defining propaganda, I used the approach of Pter Kenz who summarizes the essence of propaganda in the following way Propaganda is nothing more than the attempt to transmit social and political values in the hope of affecting peoples thinking, emotions, and thereby behaviour. The intent of influencing others is hardly objectionable. The relation of propaganda and totalitarian system could seem obvious, however, propaganda effectively works in democracies, let us think of commercials or marketing slogans. Kenz summarized the main point of totalitarianism as a well-functioning state or Party machinery that successfully controls every aspect of the life of the citizens. According to contemporary interpretation, propaganda does not reflect on the reality of actions of society and politics. By contrast, it shows their wished and desired ambitions. Thus, the paradigm of socialist realism notably that information is illustrated as it should be and not as it is- is clearly similar. Nevertheless, propaganda cinema should not be taken as a negative moral prejudice to be ignored. One can presume the nature and mechanism of the actual regime by providing indirect reflection of society through its propaganda products along with the agenda of the regime. The film was the most effective tools for mass education purposes due to its mobility in space and time, and relatively cheap price. Pter Kenz adds that mass society and propaganda could not exist without each other. In case of North Korean movies, one should inspect precisely the structure of propaganda along the ways of picturing (1) the background (the movie set as a political decor), (2) the theme (reflecting the poltical message through the subject), (3) the protagonist (the Juche-characteristics of the main hero), (4) the meanings of symbols and metaphors. This study aims to give possible examples on these points by mentioning two North Korean movie adaptations of Chunhyang-jeon from different dimensions, directed by Yu and Yun (1980) and Shin Sang-ok (1984). But before, it is essential to understand the main functions and goals of propaganda especially its system in a totalitarian system. Speaking about North Korean propaganda, two approaches should be considered. The first is when outsiders talk about North Korean propaganda mostly as a pejorative media-manipulative tool in the hands of the leadership. On the other side, when North Koreans talk about their own propaganda. The two-way direction of propaganda should be taken into consideration in order to receive an objective picture. Two good examples for the latter interpretation made by non-Koreans about North Koreans- are the documentary of The Propaganda Game (2015) and the romantic-comedy Comrade Kim goes Flying (2012) that both gives a positive, shiny and beautiful image of the country. It is interesting to see the opening scenes of both movies that show an idyllic and relaxed society with extra sharp and bright colors along with the enchanting violin play of Arirang in The Propaganda Game or the soft gayageum and violin music align with female singing voice, imaging an eye-catching green meadow in Comrade Kim goes Flying. In conclusion, although propaganda has universal rules and characteristics in totalitarian systems, still, one has to differentiate their outlines in each regimes. The first and biggest division line is the two ideologies that are antonyms to each other, the extreme left communism on the one side, and the extreme right fascism and national-socialism on the other side. Without going into deep details, it is also discussed by many scholars that these two main ideologies have much similarities and overlaps. The main hypothesis here is that depiction of totalitarian propaganda can be sharply varied from each other, even if they belong to the same political concept. 2.2. Origins of Korean Cinema 2.2.1. Identity and Film in Korean Society During the Colonial Period At the same time, cinema could show early its social identical and national resistant abilities. The Korean audience preferred watching American movies rather than forced Japanese works. Thus, the former movies became the symbol of Korean nationalism against Japanese colonialism among the Korean moviegoers. As described above, the colonial period paradoxically became one of the most fruitful periods of the Korean cinema as more than 80 films were produced during the first Golden Age of Korean cinema (1926-1935). Even though that the majority of these films were pro-Japanese, still, the above mentioned films could bring various colorful contents from different way of perspectives but the more important factor is that this period has led to the transformation of the Korean identity. The main influences on the periods Korean works had been inherited from the early silent golden age of American, European and Russian movies. Later in the 1940s, the Italian neo-realism affected on colonial Korean works, for instance in Hurray For Freedom (1946). During this period, Shin Sang-ok actively entered the film industry since he began his film career under the mentorship of the director of Homeless Angels (1941), Choe Ingyu. By conclusion, the section was essential to be mentioned in order to highlight three significant issues that influenced Shins works in North Korea. First, Korean movies cannot deny their Japanese origins and impacts since the first Korean classics were made during this period. For instance, the depiction of nature -which is a returning element in North Korean movies including Shins ones- is one of the typical Japanese film elements. Second, the long-term Japanese suppression generated the first national resistance both from left and right sides. Therefore, the cradle of the future North- and South Korean cinemas -in which Shin Sang-ok played active parts- were the Japanese colonial period. Third, Chunhyang-jeon -as one of the cores of the study- has meant the symbol of Korean identity and national resistance since its early versions. 2.2.2. Institutional Background of North Korean Cinema The KAPF As the birth of the North Korean state was one of the consequences of the Japanese colonial period of Korea, the countrys cinematic birth shows similar tendency regarding to resistance movements. Thus, I begin the analysis with the establishment of Korean socialist realist works from the colonial period. Korean Proletariat Art Federation (KAPF) symbolized and represented the leftist national resistance during the 1920s. The institution collected all the writers who made literary criticism against the pro-Japanese works. Another component was the early recognition of proletarian sensibility by spreading Marxist ideas, experimenting with socialist realism, working in illicit underground networks. Marxism, as a new, modern and attractive theory was already introduced in the 1920s in Korea, much before the division of the country. The new Marxist-movement started to attract numerous Korean intellectuals who sought the ways to express their nationalism and anti-Japanese feelings in any forms. The March First National Independence Movement in 1919 created the chance for these artists and intellectuals to speak out against the Japanese suppressors. Brian Myers mentions numerous active leftist authors from the 1920s, stressing the massive interest in national resistance from leftist in literary. He mentions the names of Pak Yonghui, Song Yong, Yi Ho and Yi Chokhyo, who in 1922 founded Koreas first leftist cultural organisation, Yomgunsa (Society of Sparks). The KAPF was established in 1925 with the aim of opposing the pro-Japanese, so-called pure literature. The KAPF works contained apolitical works, and emphasizing the interests of worker- and other lower classes. The artistic body gradually became a political one, which led to prohibition of KAPF and imprisonment of the main leading members by 1935. The year of 1967 was a turning point in the cultural field of North Korea, including KAPF-line, as Juche theory was declared as the main official ideology of the DPRK. This was also the year when Kim Jong Il took the powerful cultural position as a sectional chief of the Department of Agitation and Propaganda (see in a later section). Stressing his ideas on new cultural direction, he held a meeting for filmmakers and addressed the new style of filmmaking. It was also suitable to create the slogan of Our Style of Socialism that aimed to keep the distance from the Soviet- and the Chinese-style of socialism. Consequently, the remains of KAPF-line and its representatives were permanently eliminated by the cultural succession of Kim Jong Il and the forced spread of Juche. 2.3. Cinematic Policy of Kim ll Sung 2.3.1. The Beginnings Soviet Socialist Realist Prototype Definition of Socialist Realism Since North Korea was liberated by the USSR in 1945 loyally followed the instructions of Moscow along with the formalities of national Stalinism. A strong pro-Soviet clique emerged in support of programming Russian cultural norms into Korean environment under the slogan of Learn from the Soviet Union. After the Second World War, the supposedly opposite theoretical influences appeared on both sides of the Korean peninsula, namely socialist realism on the North and neo-realism in the South. However, they also showed similar characteristic features instead of permanent dichotomies. The concept of socialist realism was first determined at the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Writers in 1934 Socialist realism is the basic method of Soviet literature and literary criticism. It demands of the artist the truthful, historically concrete representation of reality in its revolutionary development. Moreover, the truthfulness and historical concreteness of the artistic representation of reality must be linked with the task of ideological transformation and education of workers in the spirit of socialism. The keywords of the doctrine are representation of reality and truthfulness. The only question what did the ideology makers mean by reality According to Stalins phrase, Let life teach you, reality should not be invented or created but not taken from real life. Therefore, it was not an objective realism rather the so-called revolutionary realism that depicted the wished and desired achievements of socialism. Although Maxim Gorky the founder father of the socialist realist literary method by his blueprint Mother (1906)- also pointed out that the socialist creativity was reflected by practical experience, but not in the meanings of empirical interpretation of Locke and Hume or empirical realism of Kant. The reflection of reality by socialist realist standards mean that reality should be imaged as it should be and not as it is, which echoes the thesis of utopian socialist paradise. This approach is also harmonized with Donald Ritchies statement on realism that realism as a style implies a somewhat passive attitude, where it is recorded what life has to offer. Therefore, the film as an art and as a tool was suitable for socialist realist workers to create their own (or the ordered) vision of world where the illuminated utopia of socialist state could be materialized. Moreover, the camera could even contribute to utilize this fact, as camera cannot help but reflect reality. Hence, the socialist realist works had to reflect on everyday routine happiness along with revolutionary shiny optimism imaged by hopeful and glimmering happy ends pointing at the future. The significance of symbolism, metaphors, and allegorical meanings are inseparable parts of socialist realist works. The main characteristics -including the stereotypes of characters, the glorification of the personality cult of the leader, the dogmatic narratives or state paternalism- have been originated from Soviet samples and utilized into their Eastern European and North Korean models. The main four guidelines demanded socialist realist arts to be 1.) proletarian that refers to the relevant to the main dominant social class of Marxism-Leninism, the workers (klassovostclass-contented) 2.) typical that reflects to the scenes of everyday life, which was actually meant to be revolutionary (prevdivosttruthfulness) 3., realistic, which is the portrayal of reality as it should be and not as it is (ideinostideological-based) 4.) partisan which reflects to the State and the Party goals (partiinostParty-mindfulness). In the light of the four main principles, socialist realism is against of every other form that clashes one of the four points. Formalism, avant-garde and naturalism are its biggest enemies that provide innovative individual ideas and creations, which are not allowed (or in limited forms) in socialist realism.Hence, it also rejects nineteenth century critical realist, neo-classicist, impressionist, constructivist, grotesque, erotic, religious, abstract, surrealist and expressionist elements. Formal experiments, including internal dialogue, stream of consciousness, nonsense, free-form association, and cut-up are also disallowed as they have been considered as decadent, unintelligible to the proletariat, or counter-revolutionary. Socialist realist works demand precision, clarity and definite words without any uncertain, puzzling, unclear, ambivalent, empty and ugly meanings. The good and evil characters are depicted clearly in order to recognize them easily. The function of music and songs has to create straightforward atmosphere and mood. Socialist Realism on Movie Screen The art, especially cinema, became the legitimate servant of the dominant socialist realist cultural discourse. Since the cinema could provide massive mobilizing force and its distribution was relatively easy, the culture-makers used this form to spread the propaganda. Small movie theatres were settled at agricultural collectives, tractor stations and factories in order to enlighten the masses. Despite the limitations of the artistic freedom in the USSR, the Soviet artists could create not only non-schematic real arts in the most intensive years of socialist realism (1934-53), but real true Soviet movie classics were born in this period. A significant example is Dovzhenkos Earth (Zemlja 1930) that interprets the period of collectivization by illustrating realistic-tone drama of revolutionary world formation via outstandingly beautiful cinematography by depiction of beautiful landscapes. Gorkys socialist realist blueprint, Mother (1906), movie adaptation was shot by Pudovkin in 1926. The most popular film genres of socialist realism were comedies, costume dramas, romance movies, musicals and collective films like kolkhoz-, tractor-, and factory-films. One of the most often mentioned Soviet socialist realist work is Chapaev (1934) by Vasilev-brothers. The actual biography of General Chapaev served a good base to image the sacrificial positive and non-corrupt revolutionary hero, loyalty to the motherland, portrait of the cruel enemy, glory of the Party over the individual and the main idealistic message of the new art, namely life as it should be referring to the utopian socialist paradise, just to name a few. Turovskaya calls this work as a conventional Western (,,,) and more closely Eastern, which contains actions, adventures, patriot dialogues that hit the theatres of the country and even the socialist bloc as Pravda glorified it The whole country is watching Chapaev. Furthermore, the Soviet movies did not only differ from North Korean cinematic model from its technical braveness but also in their aesthetic contents. The former ones could interpret love and romance in a more open way than the latter ones that required a more modest depiction of intimacy in the frame the traditional Confucian morals. For instance, the kolkhoz comedies, like The Rich Bride (1938) or the Tractor Drivers (1939), includes kiss, woman scream, imaging sweating and masculine female bodies as elements of spontaneity of Soviet sexuality. Shin Sang-ok is the first pioneer who transferred more erotic depiction of romance in the conservative North Korean film discourse. The whole section has given details on socialist realism, including some Soviet movie examples, from different approaches in order to foreshadow how Shin Sang-ok strikingly emerged from the mainstream approach of North Korean cinema. 2.3.2. Transformation of North Korean Cinematic Discourse From Socialist Realism to Juche Realism Likewise Lenin, Kim Il Sung also shared the view on importance of cinema since he called it superior to other forms of literature and art. As he addressed that the genuine mission of film art is to teach the people the truth of life and illuminate the road of struggle for them. While the former section highlighted the basic theoretical framework of North Korean cinema, socialist realism, this section aims to illustrate how the DPRK has gradually drifted away from the Soviet Union and how the official film discourse has shifted towards the direction of Juche art. It is crucial to be mentioned in order to recognize how Shins North Korean Chunhyang-jeon varies from its Juche realist prototype made in 1980. But before that, the followings tell a few words on the early North Korean cinematic trends. In the first years of the post-Liberation era, there was a relative artistic freedom in the northern side of Korea until the spring of 1947 when strict guidelines and doctrines had been set up. From then on, the focus was more on the establishment of the new state, the DPRK (1948), along with glorifying the strong support of the Soviet Union. The story is about the anti-Japanese guerilla fights of Kim Il Sung and his independent liberation of the country. It images the joy and emotion of the Korean People who are now liberated from the colonial yoke of the Japanese imperialism. The film focuses less on the contents of dogmatic socialist messages, comparing with its later North Korean counterparts. My Home Village much more stresses the national struggle of the Korean peninsula against the Japanese. The form of national liberation of Korea was not illustrated as a class and its revolutionary struggle but it was done by a struggle of the whole Korean nation. Thus, the idea of nationalism has already emerged in the first Korean movie. Moreover, the technical solutions of the movie can remind one the techniques of Japanese films during the colonial period in forms of early Korean-Japanese melodramas through their long shots and relatively few cuts. On the contrary, Soviet filmmakers used other editing and camera-styles like using quick cuts and montages, making the movies more dynamic and eye-catching. Moreover, the Soviets supported the early North Korean film industry with tools and machines for flourishing their new culture in order to re-define themselves in the sense of the new socialist Korean identity. The significance of culture -as the main identity transformer tool- has been identified from the beginning on both sides. As the North Korean education minister of the early period of DPRK, Paek Nam-eun, stresses everyday life is connected to the arts and it is the highest civilization life and happiest in the world. The revival of the Korean national values in the post-Liberation era was strongly supported by the Soviet officials who have encouraged the study of native folk dancing, literature, and music. Naturally, rejection of past did not mean the denial of the whole history, only targeting the useless and bad morals of the past represented by the bourgeois feudal relations. At the same time, the legacy of the classics and searching for national roots the useful and good past values- have been always part of Soviet socialist realism. Let us think of renaissance of epic historical themes and figures of the Soviet socialist realist cinema, for instance Peter the First I-II. (1937-38) or Ivan, the Terrible I-II. (1944 1946). The same events happened with utilization of Korean classic folklores in literary and movie industry of the DPRK. Novels and movies like The Tale of Chunhyang (1959) and The Tale of Shim Cheong (1957) had the first golden age in 1950s. The above mentioned policies also confirm that the Soviets reckoned the new socialist Korea much differently than other socialist states. Moscow allowed Pyongyang having more autonomy and distinction (at least in identity terms) than other ethnic states of the USSR. Paradoxically, this relatively uncontrolled autonomy and independence policy could lead to the expansion of personality cult of Kim Il Sung, increase of identity independence from the USSR, and the creation of socialism in our style-doctrine from the period of Sino-Soviet split (1956-1966). At the same time, the DPRK carefully paid attention to keep a considerable distance both from Maos Chinese films and the Soviet movies. On the one hand, the USSR strengthened the de-Stalinization process in the field of movies also, while the DPRK built its Juche policy more intensively into its movie discourse by glorifying North Korea as an independent country along with its eternal leader, Kim Il Sung. Besides the isolationism, the main messages of the Kim Il Sung period from the 1950s -that dominated film narratives- were collectivism (anti-individualism) and mobilization. Although the tendency of Chinese and Soviet influence was intensely dropped by 1955, still, the cultural influx remained permanently intense during the Thaw-period as culture served a significant role in to legitimizing Kim Il Sungs leadership his personality cult. Thus, the USSR and China did not finish with spreading their national propaganda in the DRPK. The Hungarian scholar, Szalontai, also points out that the Soviet and Chinese exhibitions in late 1955 gave opportunities for North Koreans to watch lots of new Soviet and Chinese films in the theatres. Additionally, Moscow provided a joint-stock export company, Sovexportfilm, equipped with technical experts and tools. On the other side, Moscow allowed North Korean movies for screening in the Soviet Union in a much limited quantity, as the following example shows. Only four out of the twelve North Korean movies were shown in 1961 as one cannot show films based on personality the cult in the de-Stalinization era. The section illustrated how official North Korean film discourse has gradually got further from Soviet socialist realism. Due to the Sino-Soviet split and the Thaw in the USSR, the DPRK began to maneuver between Moscow and Beijing from the mid-1950s. Moreover, the cultural expansion of Juche concept (see in the followings) and the peak of the personality cult from the late 1960s depicted an indepedendent image of the regime. The cultural opening tendency in the 1980s, in which Shin Sang-ok had a key role, somehow revived the countrys harmonization policy with its Allies. 2.4. Cinematic Policy of Kim Jong Il 2.4.1. The Cultural Succession of Kim Jong Il This section aims to continue the previous thought on shift of socialist realist discourse by the expansion of Juche from the late-1960s. As written, the de-Stalinization process (1956) and Sino-Soviet split (1956-1966) were the main division lines when North Korea succeeded to find paths for independence. From then on, the North Korean cultural productions has become more separated from other Soviet satellite states installments, containing more ethnocentric elements and stressing the countrys independence. The utilization of Juche and cultural succession of Kim Jong Il played key roles in the process. From the beginning he was possessed artistic sensibility -mainly by movies-, as Choi Eun-hee noticed later in the 1980s. As Kim Jong Il also stresses the importance of cinema in his book The cinema is now one of the main objects on which efforts should be concentrated in order to conduct the revolution in art and literature. The cinema occupies an important place in the overall development of art and literature. As such it is a powerful ideological weapon for the revolution and construction. Therefore concentrating efforts on the cinema, making breakthroughs and following up success in all areas of art and literature is the basic principle that we must adhere to in revolutionising art and literature. (Kim Jong Il On the Art of Cinema, 1973) In the early 1960s Kim Jong Il used his high cultural power to smuggle foreign banned movies into the country under the operations 100, which mostly helped to acquire technical developments but not aesthetic quality. Moreover, Juche theory, including its prominent cultural representation -so-called Juche-art-, gradually began to overrule the Soviet- and Chinese domination. As previously stressed, one of the most significant year in North Korean cultural life was 1967. This was the year when most former KAPF-members were eliminated and Juche began to dominate every aspect of culture. The appearance of the new successor, Kim Jong Il, resulted the extension of Juche policy onto cultural fields, too. Not soon after his graduation (1964), he was taken to the Central Guidance Division of the Organization and Guidance Department in the Korean Workers Party in September 1964. With this position he could achieve and handle documents, tools from the fields of arts, culture, broadcasting, literature and publications. From 1968 he was promoted the director of the Propaganda and Agitation Department and later he became the director of the Movie and Arts Division of this Department. By October 1970 his position was raised to deputy director of the culture and arts in the Propaganda and Agitation Department. One year later, he became the head of the Culture and Arts Department in the Partys Central Committee. As mentioned, Kim Jong Il moved to Propaganda and Agitation Department in 1967. From this period, Kim Jong Il speeded up the film industry that could come up from its apathy of the 1950s and the 1960s. While the earlier period could produce only a few new feature movies per year, this number increased up to 30-40 movies annually in the 1970s. The huge numbers did not reflect the quality of the movies, as Juche art led to conventionality and uniformity () including repetitive themes, stereotypical characters, slow editing. Moreover, his cultural succession peaked at the seventh plenum of the Fifth Central Committee of the Party in 1973 when Kim Jong Il was appointed secretary in charge of the Department of Propaganda and Agitation. From then on, he symbolized the full-fledged power of North Koreas cultural life as every piece of art had to be checked and filtered by him before going to the public. Kim Jong Ils image began to testify his two-level identity, the media-level cultural leader, as the official film director of the DPRK, and the political-level new successor, the later Dear Leader. Surely, the cinema-maker Kim Jong Il had competent eyes for filmmaking, which unfortunately he was not willing to adjust in North Korean cinema. There is a huge contrast between the movies he produced in North Korea and the movies he preferred to watch every night in his private residency. Nevertheless, his cultural succession generated considerable shifts in North Korean film discourse. The following part will detail these outline changes caused by Juche Art. 2.4.2. Juche Art This section is targeted to summarize the main features of Juche realism that dominated the main discourse of North Korean cinema since the rise of Kim Jong Il as a cultural leader. First, it is still a controversial topic among scholars as some would sharply divide it from the Soviet socialist realism wing. But the majority still claims that the two cannot be separated from each other and both have to be analyzed at the same time. I assume that the two doctrines cannot be negotiated separately, confirming it by the following statements. First, the revolutionary spirit is also a crucial element in Juche realism likewise in socialist realism. The American journalist, Barbara Demick, reminds the words of Kim Jong Il (or his ghostwriter) from On the Art of Cinema (1973) that revolutionary art and literature are extremely effective means for inspiring people to work for the tasks for the revolution. Kim Il Sung also stressed the core of revolutionary ideology imaged in movies as he pointed out Like the leading article of the Party, the cinema should have great appeal and move ahead of the realities. Thus, it should play a mobilizing role in each stage of the revolutionary struggle Second, the North Korean leadership did not deny the socialist realist origins of Juche realism but considered as a more developed form. To assess the significance of the cinematic sphere of North Korea, one must first evaluate the film visions and policy of Kim Jong Il. He considered film as the perfect medium for raising national consciousness. He was the one who connected North Koreas unique Juche ideology with the field of arts and culture, as he points out communist art and literature that meet the requirements of the new age and the aspirations of the masses. At the same time, Juche art cannot be not separate socialist realism but some consider it as a developed stage of the Soviet-inherited Marxism-Leninism, a creative adaptation of Marxist-Leninism to the Korean situation for revolutionary purposes. The South Korean scholar, Hyangjin Lee, also emphasizes that Juche is a special mixture of Marxism and Confucian political ideology () in style of revolution. Third, Kim Jong Il himself talks about original forms of North Korean cinema, such as class struggle conflicts, or like each scene must be dramatic, the mood must be expressed well, however, these elements are not uniquely true for North Korean cinema. The class struggle can be found in socialist realism and the latter statements are simple repetitions of obvious phrases. There is no universal definition on Juche sasang in North Korean scholarship. Briefly, Juche stresses the importance of the countrys independence, national dignity and pride, the mastership of the people, self-sufficiency in economic capability and self-defense in military capability.Some, like Bruce Cumings, focuses on its traditional translation and approach, namely that it is self-reliance of North Koreans and the first Juche-speech (1955) was a declaration of independence from Soviet control later it meant an establishment of the nationalist philosophy of the regime. On the other side, Brian Myers emphasizes the self-reliance as a misinterpretation and imprecise translation. He stresses that the word has come from the original Japanese shutai, which means subject. This Japanese word was translated to German Subjekt so basically its meaning is subject thought. At the same time, the author invokes that the word has been borrowed from Soviet and Chinese propaganda. At least, Kim Il Sung wanted to assimilate the basic Soviet ideological doctrines set in (North) Korean environment equipped with Korean realities, instead of swallowing the Marxism-Leninism whole. Furthermore, Myers proves the antithesis of Cumings declaration when he claims that there was nothing nationalist or philosophical Juche () nor any formal shift in ideology. Kim Jong Il could gain his fathers trust via his film affection as his artistic skills were widely praised at the Fifth Party Congress in November 1970. Indeed, films played key role in the succession of Kim Jong Il. The movies and other propaganda products could maximize the personality cult of Kim Il Sung, which led to Kim Jong Ils successful selection as the next leader. From the 1970s, he linked Juche sasang with cinema via expanding the revolutionary ideas to Thought, Technology and Culture (The Three Great Revolutions). According to the North Korea Constitution in 1972, art was defined as a vehicle to inculcate communism in people and as an ideological weapon to teach them how to raise working class-consciousness and achieve a communist revolution in Korea. Basically, it cemented the basic rules of the North Korean ideology that film had to serve the interests of the Party as an ideological weapon. Moreover, he wrote the book On the Art of Cinema (1973), in which he described the main requirements and characteristics of Juche art philosophy in the field of cinema. He stresses the eight basic principles that had to be followed by every filmmaker. As one can see, most of these principles contain obvious eternal truth for general filmmaking process, for instance the best usage of sound and music or the importance of editing. Therefore, these doctrines do not serve as a real philosophy or aesthetics but rather as following and unquestinable dogmas. Ignoring the ultimate truisms, a few principles can illustrate well how the North Korean film discourse worked. The first principle, the director is the commander, depicts the subordination of the whole structure. The third principle targets to underline the sentimentalist and overemotional features of these movies. Moreover, the word well-defined reflects to the definite and straigthforward structure of North Korean movies, ignoring any abstract and formalist elements from the story and images. The contents and forms must be precise, unequivocal and unmistakeable. The fourth dogma confirms the ignorance of the celebrity cult in North Korea by demonstrating the directors importance instead of the merits and magical play of the actors/actresses. By conclusion, Juche has several meanings and it has been served more propaganda purposes that a real theoretical ideology. As Manwoo Lee writes about Juche from North Korean point of view The idea of Juche is not something to be understood or compared or analyzed but to be believed. Thus, dogmatism of Juche makes North Korea a land of true believers. The scholar Steven Chung also emphasizes that Juche never became a theoretical model but it more works in practice in form of political and heuristic apparatus. As North Korean expert, Andrei Lankov, points out in the documentary The Propaganda Game (2015) I can basically say Juche is nothing. Because () you cannot summarize Juche. Lankovs point has been also confirmed by a North Korean in the same movie who simply cannot reply on the question what Juche is, he can only answer that the best explanation is see our reality. () Its better to see our reality than to listen to my words. Then the real question is, what is their reality The depiction of Juche in film arts has been interpreted in a way that the filmmakers had to fulfill objectives in order to receive glory of the Party. Thus, all of them have been transformed from creative film artists to obedient film workers. They had to transfigure themselves before the real filmmaking process You, the film makers, must thoroughly revolutionize yourselves and fight on devotedly for the Party and the revolution () This is the way to prove yourself worthy of the Partys consideration and the trust it places you. Furthermore, in Juche realism, the role of the man is strongly focused and the basic principle that man is master of the universe and decides everything is its philosophical start-point. Note that this doctrine was also not an original idea since Engels had written about the humans disengagement from the nature. As he stresses it But all the planned action of all animals has never succeeded in impressing the stamp of their will upon the earth. That was left for man. In short, the animal merely uses its environment, and brings about changes in it simply by its presence man by his changes makes it serve his ends, masters it. (Friedrich Engels) The difference between theory of Engels and the North Korean viewpoint is that Engels also warned about the fatal consequences of the mans domination on nature since human race is still depended on its environment. Not surprisingly, this part is totally missed from Juche since an authoritarian regime does not accept any external limitations of its monolithic governance. Engels counts on control of human domination by a supernatural existence (nature or God), the authoritarian regimes like the Soviet Union or the DPRK- always promoted the domination over nature, placing the man at the highest position. Summarizing the main principles of Kim Jong Il on Juche art filmmaking, he emphasizes 1.) seed-theory to choose the proper theme and balance message and form 2.) modeling to depict the representative images of a model worker and 3.) speed campaign to produce films quickly as the need arises. The most well-known typical North Korean revolutionary operas that received international fame were Sea of Blood (1969) and The Flower Girl (1972). The latter one received prestigious film award at Karlovy Vary Film International Festival in Czechoslovakia, which the North Korean propaganda is still proud of. The purely Korean work, The Flower Girl, is one of the best-known North Korean cultural products, including its numerous stage performances worldwide. Note that story invokes both Gorkys socialist realist blueprint Mother and the Chinese opera, The White-Haired Girl, in which the poor peasant girl, Xier, waits for her father to celebrate the Spring Festival. Both origins contain similar contains like the later North Korean model, for instance the female-centered story along with revolutionary spirit, slavery work and suffer of local peasantry and low classes by domination of cruel landlords, permanent highlights of emotions in forms of sentimentalism and agony. Likewise Pelagueyas symbol of self-struggle and her transformation from apolitical condition into political cosciousness in Gorkys classic, Kotpun has also shortly become the revolutionary political conscious heroine figure in the DPRK. Dehumanization of the lower classes and getting rid of their morality the heroine are the start key points to shift the apolitical approach of the main protagonists into a condition where the suppressed ones could hear their voices against the bourgeois ruler classes. Moreover, the Chinese story includes Japanese imperialist suppressors. Like in other cases, the official North Korean propaganda has never admitted Kotpuns Russian and Chinese prototypes, however, the similarities in contents and forms are visible. The opening picture of The Flower Girl shows the picturesque land of North Korea in the background with its snow-covered mountains, which symbolize the purity of the cleanest race as Myers called it in his book title. It is a hybrid genre movie (drama-musical) that contains all the important elements that express Juche-art since historical part reflects to the unfair suppression of the Koreans by the colonial Japan. The drama also illustrates the continuous tragedies in the family of Kotpun (Flower Girl), the female protagonist. Kim Il Sungs reference in the end of the movie in the role of the protagonists brother strengthens the personality cult of the Supreme Leader. The sentimental musical parts are indispensable tools for highlighting the extreme emotions and agony on screen. By contrast, Shin Sang-ok North Korean hybrid genre (romance-musical), Love, Love, My Love (1984), contain a completely style of musical both in melody and rhythm. While the former one follows the traditional soft and slower lines of music, Shin introduced a more dynamic, Westernized, more pop song-like musical with male-female dialogues. The opening singing set at the lonely tree creates the main abandoned, desperate and melancholic atmosphere of the movie. The family tragedies are determinated from the origins as Kotpuns father passed away long time ago and the mother also passes away because of hard-work and enduring the pain of the evil couple. Kotpuns younger sister got blinded due to evil Japanese-collaborator landowner couple. Another reflection to the cruel Japanese-image is when the landlord, Mr. Paes wife, gets sick and the witch (here the traditional doctor) tries to heal her, she repeated this sentence Evil spirit from southeast…, which -in a broader context- exactly refers to Japan itself as it is located southeastern direction from North Korea. The self-struggle motive is set in the role of Kotpun as she has been left alone and abandoned with her problems that have to be solved by herself. Meanwhile, her brother got also arrested by the Japanese and his transformation from an apolitical suppressed to political-conscious national liberator brings the Juche-twist by the end. The Flower Girl does not miss the national enlightenment message. At the market scene, when the blind young sister can make good money by singing, Kotpun warns her sister that honor and purity are more important than food. We are poor but not beggars. I sell flowers in humiliation, but you mustnt. The main Juche-message emerges when the savior of all bad happenings arrives by the end of the movie in the role Kotpuns brother who brings socialism for the Koreans living in agony and suppression. The only solution could be Kim Il Sung and his socialist North Korean state. The song also follows this ideology Cant the poor be rescued The peaceful optimistic socialist realist closing picture refers to a well-organized, harmonic and ideal socialist community that North Korea should be. Nevertheless, the character of Kotpun echoes the typical characters and characteristics of North Korean movies and also Soviet socialist realist movies. The ultimate message is that you (note everybody) can also be hero. That is the main reason why the main characters are depicted similarily to average people on streets (the girl/boy from the next door) vis–vis the individualistic and supernatural characterisation of Western cultural products, embodied their heroes with star allures and special skills. While a viewer can easily recognize the Western hero from the crowd, the North Korean/socialist realist is in part of crowd. It means that she/he can also be like you, your relative, your neighbour. In other words, the heroes of socialist realist works are more reachable with more human face versus the Superman-type Western heroes, whose aim to excel from the average from the beginning of the story. Even until now The Flower Girl is one of the biggest cinematic prides of the DPRK, which is indeed beautifully photographed and well-directed. On the other side, it also showed that main features of the Juche realist North Korean cinema. What worked in the 1970s, it did not work out later, which led to the recognition for Kim Jong Il that he had to take other and more convincing methods to boost the film industry and attract international viewers. It led to the fact that six years after the release of The Flower Girl, Choi Eun-hee and Shing Sang-ok were on the land of North Korea. Moreover, the section attempted to illustrate the typical Juche realist way of agony, permanent sufferings and the victory of the political-conscious protagonist. I will detail Shin Sang-ok two similar enlightenment movies set also in the Manchurian period, Runaway (1984) and Salt (1985) in order to depict how differently Shin visualized the permanent torture, sorrow and suppression. 2.4.4. The Golden Age of North Korean Cinema in the 1980s This section illustrates the relaxationcinematic conditions of the 1980s. The followings will be one of the key parts of the study since this was the period when Shin Sang-ok and Choi Eun-hee started to work actively in the DPRK. Remarkably, this was also the most productive decade of the North Korean cinema, regarding the quantity and variety of genres. The opening period helped the abducted South Korean film couple to make their movie experiments. The decade of the 1980s generated a relatively calm and quiet period for the cinematic environment. Kim Jong Il started to invest a huge amount of money in order to boost cinema business and receive international movie reputation. Therefore, I would strongly underline that Shin Sang-ok was not the one who began to launch the Thaw-period in the DPRK during the 1980s. Indeed, he was a significant player in the whole process however, the tendency had already begun before his actual presence in the mid-1980s. It was more a well-conceived concept from the top leadership. The fact that the abduction of Shin and Choi had been already carried out in the late 1970s also confirms the assumption that the leadership aimed to broaden the doors from the 1980s. Although Shin and Choi were only two instruments of the whole, still, they were the or one of the- most useful and protected pieces in the opening mechanism, at least at film level. Nevertheless, this was the period when North Korea filmmakers could make different genres -such as action, war, romantic-comedy, monster-movie, family melodrama, martial art movie, classic folktale adaptation- in a relatively flexible way. Furthermore, due to enter of Shin Sang-ok, different filmmaking styles and methods could appear both for other North Korean filmmakers and the audience. Turning back to the second reneissance of the Korean classics -as symbols of the Korean national identity-, played the other most significant part of the cultural relaxation in the 1980s. These folk tales were reformed both in their forms and styles (in literary, music and films) in a relatively liberalized way compared to the earlier tendencies. During the first golden period of the 1950s, these classic stories were re-shaped in order to focus on the dogmatic socialist messages, while their re-programmed versions in the 1980s showed more human and less steril faces to the audience with more love and less politics. Kim Jong Ils intention was to re-discover forgotten classics in innovate new forms, like musicals. The main purpose of mass education was still in prior but combining it in more entertaining forms. As Sonia Ryang claims that there was no coincidence of the warming policy of the 1980s and the shifting doctrines of the leadership from a logocentric to a sensory-oriented relationship () as feelings replaced logic. The deep human feelings, emotions and passions -including sensuality, especially due to the credits of Shin Sang-ok- clearly came out from the screen, whereas the previous period was dominated by ration and logic. The films became softer that focused more on human relations and individual social and family issues. Nevertheless, it is important to focus on the emotion-ration correlation in North Korean movies. In general, North Korean movies were much more emotion-focused than ration-focused since birth due to its original Asian, Japanese influence, and the new Western influence of Soviet Unions socialist realist works. Therefore, the only analyzed question is how the depiction of emotions has been changed during the decades. While the object of love and central emotions was the Leader Kim Il Sung in 1960s and 1970s, the object of love has been shifted to the girl/boy of the story. The image of impersonal and asexual love towards Kim Il Sung has been transformed to an interpersonal and sexually-filled love that excluded somehow the love towards the Leader. His image gradually became to maneuver towards more like a Our Respected Father Leader direction rather that staying in the focal point of love. Thus, the political love has been switched to its origins, to the natural private and intimate love between a male and a female. Hence, due to Kim Jong Ils Western (especially American) film love could allow watching some Western movies for some chosen directors although he could not let people to watch Western movies since their nihilism and taste of freedom could have undermined the stability of the regime. The domestic relaxation of the 1980s also included re-introduction of foreign movies, mainly friendly Soviet and Chinese ones. There was an increasing trend on screening movies of new Soviet cinema after the cold political and cultural distance policy. Lankov confirms that probably one of the biggest movie hits in North Korea was the screening of a Soviet cinema in the 1980s, Pirates of the 20th Century (1979) because of its martial arts scenes, special effects and semi nudity parts. Western cultural factors -as signs of readiness for international cultural opening-, was not a linear process. In the early 1960s, the cultural propaganda stressed the anti-Japanese guerilla fights of Kim Il Sung, while the mid-1960s brought up cultural news from the West about foreign writers, artists, directors, and actors, such as The Art of Donatello, Eisenstein, and The Tragedy of Marilyn Monroe. Nevertheless, the cultural cooperation with foreign countries mostly remained at diplomatic level and did not provide significant changes on North Korean cultural line inside the society. The period of relative relaxation of the 1980s opened the windows towards other, non-friendly countries. The Western (note non-communist) internationalization of North Korean films peaked in forms of the South Korean filmmaker, Shin Sang-oks movies. The boom days of opening generated a production flood of North Korean movies with different storylines, sophisticated character construction, substantial budget and public success. As Ryang also adds that there was a spirit at that time in North Korea to create new kinds of cinema, in which Choi and Shin contributed the most significant part. Furthermore, in the post-Shin era there were remarkable atypical joint international co-productions with Japan, Silver Hairpin (1985), Thaw (1985), with France, Gandahar (1988) or with Italy, Ten Zan (1988). The official friendly Sino-Soviet cultural exchange slowed down by the 1990s, after the collapse of the Eastern European socialist block in the late 1980s and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. It does not mean that North Korean TV would not broadcast Russian and Chinese movies since then. The revival of the Korean classic folktales brought more entertaining elements for the audience including fantasy, magic, romance, action and martial arts. The year of 1980 started with the North Korean-edited classic of The Tale of Chunhyang (1980) and followed by several folk tales in forms of literary and movie. The relaxation of literary works also meant that it helped to launch a new tendency in front of other cultural fields like cinematic arts. In general, new tendencies in literature have most commonly emerged before cinematic changes. Similar following tendencies are recognizable in terminology of literature-theatrical/opera performances (including music)-films relations. The first Immortal Classics like the Sea of Blood and The Flower Girl- have been published first in literary forms, then they were presented in theatres in the late 1950s and the last form was the movie in the late 1960s. The follow-ups among genres have happened similarily with Korean classics. For instance, Shim Cheong-jeon and Chunhyang-jeon were first published in literary forms, then they were performed in theatres in the 1950s, which was followed by the period of movie adaptations in 1957 and 1959. Consequently, it is undeniable that the 1980s was the peak period in North Koreas filmmaking history both in relation of quality and quantity. During the 1980s, Shin and Choi had to provide key tasks for the leadership, which will be discussed in a later chapter. After the 1980s, North Korea had to face with its most difficult decade in its history since the 1990s brought extreme hardships for the country on economic-, political and social levels. Hence, the film industry also started to shrink due to the isolation and economic difficulties both inside and outside the country. 2.4.5. The Role of Chunhyang-jeon from North Korean Perspective The Main Dichotomies between Northern and Southern Adaptations The first golden period of movie adaptation of Korean classics, including The Tale of Shim Cheong (1957) and The Tale of Chunhyang (1959), was carried out during the early period of North Korean cinema in the 1950s. Note that the Korean classic literature was strongly revised in the first North Korean period of Koreanization until the 1960s. Therefore, the excessive eroticism and empty love cravings were left out from these novels. The tendency of issuing classic Korean tales in the 1950s was stopped by the KAPF in 1967 by introducing different cultural priorities. As written in the previous parts, Kim Jong Il described the new line of cinema to promote Juche art. Shin Sang-oks North Korean version, Love, Love, My Love, in 1984 rather focused on different gender image and highlighted Chunhyang as a soft, innocent, vulnerable female and an erotic beauty, counterbalancing the social class struggle issues like in Yu and Yuns version. Also, it was the first North Korean movie that showed direct and more open sexual references including erotic male gazes, objectification of female body, undressing moments and body touches. The previous film trend imaged socialist realist gaze, following Stephanie Donalds concept, focusing on the heros visibility through his/her personal struggle and through the leaders gaze. In general, the gazes displayed in movies can reflect the hierarchical and intimate relations of the subject and object. Chunhyang is imaged more vulnerable in Shins interpretation comparing to previous versions. The feminine personality and the female body were in the center that can be poisoned by foreign touches of the governor. Shins unorthodox Chunhyang-adaptation shows the governors sexually pervert male gaze and the mutual sexual gazes of the protagonists in a much braver way than they were shown even in the earlier South Korean adaptations. Only Im Kwon-taek could go further in his Chunhyang (2000) where he showed naked body parts and used sexual voices letting the audience into the most intimate place of the main characters, Chunhyangs bedroom. It is not surprising that the North Korean audience remembers Shins movies as bit erotic and sexually overheated and this was the reason why they were, especially Love, Love, My Love, were extremely popular in the mid-1980s. The latest two North Korean versions from 1980 and 1984 show how the classic North Korean typical film school represented by Yun and Yu- stands against the modernist and atypical film language of Shin Sang-ok. The conflicting views of tradition versus modernism, including with innovation and formalism, increased a debate referring to the conflicting ideologies of socialist versus capitalist. Before deeply analyzing the work of The Tale of Chunhyang (1980), the main differences between the various explanations of Chunhyang-jeon on the two sides of the peninsula should be discussed. The different interpretations of North and South show an image of a divided nation including their conflicting cultural identities. The first division can be found in the different approaches of the storys focus. While the South Korean ones try to show hardships of Chunhyang from individual gender point of views, their northern counterparts mainly the first two adaptations- use community social class as the central object. Moreover, Yu and Yun depicted Chunhyang as a more independent and revolutionary female protagonist in accord with North Korean social values. Both sides could achieve the hearts of Koreans along with imaging different ideological forms. In contrast, the original story is full of other deep social messages like race, ethnicity, cultural and moral suppression, religion, social injustice, social criticism of the Confucian mentality and basic women human rights. Almost none of the movie adaptations could talk on every issue in the same movie but different Chunhyang-jeon movies focused on different social issues. Nevertheless, most of the main characters clash the principle morals of Choson such as violating filial duty by illegal marriage, pre-married sex, and corruption against the people represented by Byun Hakdo. Chunhyang and Mongryong marry secretly without informing Mongryongs father, thus, the whole marriage remains illegal until the end of the story. Pre-marital sex was also illegal according to Choson-morals and rules, thus, it caused a core conflict in the storyline. Nonetheless, not only the couple makes mistakes. The new governor, Byun Hakdo, intervenes into the rules of Choson-morals since he behaves corrupted who tortures unfairly his people and he wishes a married gisaeng although it is not considered a legal marriage- driven by his individual sexual desires. The problem of the Choson illegality is explained and justified by inserting spiritual elements in the role of the fortune teller and dreams of Wolmae, the mother of Chunhyang. According to these predictions, Mongryong has to find Chunhyang and marry her in order to fulfill his duty and destiny by demolishing corruption and providing justice for the lower classes. Note that spirituality, fortune-telling and dream interpretation have been closely related to Korean shamanism, which has not only been attached to the Chunhyang-story itself but also to the whole Korean ancient traditions. Moreover, shamanism is more deeply-rooted in Korean culture and identity than the Chinese-originated Confucianism. Surely, one can also find several sharp contrasts between the domestic versions, however, the most significant difference can be found between the northern and southern versions related to political terms. The northern Chunhyang-jeon interpretations try to install propaganda class conflict elements by imaging the exploited lower class, including Chunhyang, by the entire noble Yangban class. For instance, they do not show detailed images of a morally good Yangban character, like the father of Mongryong, while the South Korean ones do. The appearance of Mongryongs father as a morally good and legally fair governor is not illustrated in details in North Korean versions. However, South Korean ones often start the opening scenes with his portrait. According to North Korean propaganda, the social problems and injustice are originated from all the Yangban class as they represent the main exploiters. In addition, Shin Sang-ok somehow steps over a limit in his North Korean version when he portrays the new governor as a sadistic sexual pervert character by directly zooming in on blood and imaging the governors voluptuous male gaze. In contrast, the southern versions do not generalize the evil Yangban as a whole exploiter class. Instead of blaming the entire social class, they only point at the new governor (and his close circle) as the main sources of the social injustice and unfairness. These adaptations do not attend to criticize the necessity of royal dynasties of the ancient Korea as they also portray the morally good Yangban, Mongryongs father, who plays the key role for social justices and physical protection of the whole community. On the contrary, the North Korean interpretation does not prefer the idea of kingdom as an example of bourgeois noble class who unfairly uses the lower classes, namely the workers and the peasants. Chunhyang-jeon could become successful from its birth as the desire of the lower class to belong to the upper ones could be originated from the unfair feudal system of the Korean history. Thus, Chunhyang does not only symbolize the suppressed Korean nation by their unfair landlords and foreign exploiters but she also testifies the impossible dream of the lower classes as she could finally achieve her fair reward. The tale might have been created in the seventeenth century of Choson Korea with the intentional purpose of changing the unchangeable. The desire of the everyday low-class people was a society without class differentiations, which could intervene into individual human relationships like the privacy of an innocent love couple. The different ideological interpretations between versions, the implementations of music and mainly the depicting romance on screen were interpreted quite differently. Surely, Chunhyang-jeon is part of the Korean culture and Korean identity, regardless if someone is from the North or the South. Most of the directors could maintain the truly Korean image of Chunhyang-jeon. Some, like Im Kwon-taek from South Korea in 2000, could succeed it via the origins of Chunhyang-jeons performance, namely by using Koreans traditional national treasure, pansori, adapting the forgotten traditional genre into the modern virtual environment. Analysis of The Tale of Chunhyang (1980) In the DPRK, the traditional folk stories, like The Tale of Ondal (1987), Rim Kkok Jong I-V. (1987-9), The Tale of Shim Cheong (1957 and 1985), Hong Kil Dong (1986), have been used for propaganda tools. As Hyangjin Lee also indicates it, the essence of the folk tale embodies the popular desire of a Utopian society. Indeed, Chunhyang-jeon contains every important element that North Korean regime could use, like filial duty, exploited low class, romance of revolution, resistance, unjust and corrupt bourgeois Yangban, self-sacrifice, revolutionary female protagonist, continuously waiting for the savior/the future Leader in character of Mongryong Lee and demolishing the past system in order to transform it to socialist paradise. The romance element could also fit into the North Korean ethics as love has been interpreted between people and the Great Leader. Besides it was suitable for mocking the outsider foreigners who misused Korea, symbolized by the tortured body of Chunhyang, the vulnerable feminine image of the nation as a woman covered by a veil. The mass popularity can be originated from the romance line of the story. Yu and Yuns Chunhyang-jeon version in 1980 was a popular work as it was a traditional love story starred with a traditional North Korean beauty. The romance story imaged the female protagonist primarily in the role of a lover and not as a war hero like in previous gender movies. Note that love imaging on screen was quite limited according to North Korean standards of the 1980s. For Western eyes, it can seem quite conservative, modest and political-focused but North Korean audience watched it from different perspective. As previously written, the new opening, relaxation period of the 1980s could bring Western influence more openly than before, although it was a hidden liberization. As Szalontai quoted from a related Hungarian document, the repertoire of the Mansudae Ensemble splendidly combines traditional Korean dances with the more discreet elements of modern disco or jazz in the 1980s, which was probably influenced by Kim Il Sungs visit to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe in May-June 1984. The 1985-edition of Korean Film Art also talks about a new stage of upswing of the 1980s at the field of film arts, in which the direction, acting, shooting, decoration, music and other techniques stepped into new stages. The other aspect of the new interest to the wider outside world was the fact that the quality level of the cultural products had been decreasing to a level where the North Koreans started to lose the interest in watching domestic productions. Kim Jong Il complained to Shin Sang-ok and Choi Eun-hee about the low quality of North Korean movies, both related to actors performances and technical levels, since the number of revolutionary operas and films has undergone a decrease. Portraying love on screen did not mean that Yu and Yun could avoid displaying Juche art-contents, like revolutionary spirit, desire of classless society or glorification of Kim Il Sung. The storyline focuses on the contradiction of traditional class-based society and prioritizes public over private, collective over individual. The North Korean filmmakers tried to portray Chunhyang as an ideal hard-working socialist revolutionary female protagonist who can beat the injustice of the noble class through her own self-sacrifice, without receiving any help, recalling the Juche-element. She is even portrayed as the main provider of the family who works in kitchen, prepares food for the mother, which was never illustrated before in any versions, including the original folk story. Romance is illustrated by a night walk at moonlight, without any body touches between the main characters. Only the change of the seasons reminds the audience about the couples love and their intimate moments. Keeping the physical distance is clearly visible during the entire movie. For instance, when Mongryong arrives to the females house to ask the permission from the mother, the male protagonist is located on the extreme right of the screen while Chunhyang plays on her gayageum in her separated location sitting on the extreme left of the screen. Between them, there are shown three different people, which basically means that the two main protagonists are situated the furthest from each other. The other interesting point can be observed in the personality of Chunhyang. Even if she is pictured as a clear and innocent beauty, neither she promotes and uses it for her own benefits, nor she attracts other males. The active, hard-worker North Korean-type of Chunhyang stands against to her passive daydreamer South Korean counterpart. The North Korean filmmakers send the direct message that an ideal type of a female socialist worker should be like the North Korean Chunhyang, namely hard-worker, simple, not demanding and someone who can sacrifice herself for revolutionary ideas to win over the Yangban class and create a classless society. The marriage is even interpreted as a social benefit to step on the social ladder rather than as a tool of individuals joy or satisfaction. Chunhyang appears in this version more as a worker than a real female human with sensitive emotions and sexual desires. Note again that the North Korean viewers probably concentrated on the romantic scenes even if they are limited for Western eyes-, like the songs of Chunhyang or the romantic walk of the couple in the forest by moonlight, and ignored the ideological repetitive slogans. Reference to Kim Il Sung cannot be missed in the role of Mongryong who is the only savior of the lower class people and who continuously waits for his return. The intentional mystification of Mongryong was probably illustrated in this way in order to be able to image the Supreme Leaders guerilla fights in Manchuria. It is a returning propaganda element that can be familiar from previous North Korean movies like The Flower Girl (1972) where the heroines brother imaged Kim Il Sung. The sovereign love in North Korea has been traditionally born from a triangle, involving woman, man and the Great Leader, at least in the display of love in artistic works. The characters could find each other with love as they first proved how much they adore the Great Leader. Without this connection, there was almost no love illustration in North Korean films. The main characters can love each other because they love Kim Il Sung. Ryang also stresses that this love goes beyond sexuality (asexual) in the same way like the Great Leader is gender-free (genderless). This tendency has been broken by Shin Sang-ok who brought interpersonal, two-channel love bypassing the glorification of the Great Leader. Therefore, Shin depicted sexuality and true love between his female and male characters as love is a direction and not a state of the soul as Simone Weil claims. The public image of North Korean way of love is the shy, silent female love by hiding behind trees and smile at the male but not receiving his gaze. The images of the modest, culturally educated display of love is also portrayed by painting together, playing on the sexual musical instrument of gisaeng, gayageum, by Chunhyang or telling love poems to each other from physical distance, which make the romantic atmosphere more sophisticated. The bad news about Mongryongs compulsory leave to Seoul is illustrated by falling leaves and bitter song. There is no over-dramatization in the act of mother Wolmae as she also behaves modest who is able push her emotions without shouting or hysterical crying. The farewell of the couple is also shown in a slower but more touching way than in the over-emotional South Korean versions. The meeting of the couple happens in a direct and romantic way as they meet spontaneously on the bridge, which symbolizes the spark of the connection. The fast zoom-in on faces of Chunhyang and Mongryong images the positive surprise, embarrassment and chemistry between the protagonists. At the same time, the bridge set is taken in long shot, in soft embracing of a huge tree crown, hanging down on the bridge. In the background, the house of Mongryong is located on the top of the hill, in the middle of the set. In the foreground, the spectacular reflection of the lake mirrors crystal clearly the holes of the stone bridge and the leaves of the protector old tree. Another trees leaves are visible on the right side of the picture in extra-close distance. The whole postcard-set is designed in full harmony and relaxed state, which refers to the requited love in forms of the two sides of the bridge and the two trees located on both sides of the screen. Indeed, this scene is composed like scenery of a North Korean painting. When I call it requited love, I highlight that it is not depicted directly on screen but in an indirect way by images of nature, changing seasons and animals. However, Shin approached it in a completely different way since he directly depicted requited love by requited gazes of the couple. But the male gaze remains unrequited in Yun and Yus version. The first meeting of the couple is approached from a more human-close point of view than an accidentally glance. Even though that Chunhyang does not stay in the circle of Mongryong, the sudden surprise on both faces shot by close-ups seems purely romantic. The marriage contract is imaged charming as it contains a graph of the bridge where the couple met. The love at first sight scene is followed by Mongryongs poem about his love devotion. The swinging scene of Chunhyang only comes up after the first meeting on the bridge. Thus, the whole dramaturgy happens differently than in the previously mentioned versions since Chunhyang is already in love on the swing. In the light of these features, the North Korean love is much more conscious love than a random one. Another interesting and new element has been illustrated in the house of Chunhyangs mother, Wolmae. Chunhyang is depicted as a diligent daughter who takes care of her family, which invokes the role of Kotpun from The Flower Girl (1972). She cooks and prepares dish in the kitchen in the North Korean version, while the South Korean ones do not show her in a role of a good housewife (even if she is not married yet). The new magistrate, Byun Hakdo, is portrayed as an evil figure, which is visible even from his outlook. His eyebrows look evil, his lips are almost always curled down, his sudden anger, quick-tempered and mean personality looks realistic. The first beatings on Chunhyangs body are portrayed scary as the executioner is imaged in medium close-up and slashes in the air towards the camera. Although this version does not contain graphic bloody images, still, suffer of Chunhyang is depicted is brutal and agonistic. The violent bloody images were brought by Shin Sang-ok four years later, depicting the suffering and torture scenes of Chunhyang in more realistic and natural ways. Revealing of Mongryong at the end of the movie is carried out by the royal letter left over at the birthday supper. In that scene, Mongryong already left the palace as he informed Bang-je to call the soldiers. The missing part is the scene for preparing for Chunhyangs execution. In this version, she is only called to show up for Mongryong after he takes over the governors position. However, Chunhyang does not know that the new governor is her love so the story finishes with a socialist realist twist, which increases the tension among the audience and gives bigger relief for the couple. The ring plays an important role here as this is the link how Chunhyang can identify her love, Mongryong. The ending pictures contain natural elements like cherry trees, wild duck couple and picturesque mountain scene with the familiar classical violin theme. The technical method of double exposure (superimposition) is noteworthy at the scene of Mongryongs study when he is unable to concentrate. The double exposure shows the males face and the females swinging shape on the same picture along with the relaxing music of violins and flute. This superimposition technique returns at the scene when Chunhyang sits in the prison and thinks about the intimate moments spent together by illustrating the suffering Chungyang and Mongyrong who rides on his horse on the same still. Imaging the returning Mongyong is also unique as this is the only version where he comes back on a boat and not on land. Directors Yun and Yu, use often the elements of the nature, including landscape, animals and weather to express the mood of the scene and feelings of the characters, and the image of romance. The beauty of the country, the motherland, is imaged in scenic landscape. Note that static landscape images can recall the Soviet socialist realist montage style, which also showed natural images of the countrys panorama, for instance in Pudovkins Mother (1926). Several openings of North Korean movies start with imaging beautiful landscapes of Korean mountains along with the familiar relaxing music played by violin orchestra. The picturesque mountainous environment along with shiny, warm forest-scenes and the unforgettable waterfalls promote the optimism of socialist realism and also the nations patriotism. I would add that the Soviet patter for depiction of nature probably was not only the valid source for the North Koreans. As stressed already, Richie underlines several Japanese patters, which North Korean probably used in their movies. Besides the length and sentimentalism which were mentioned in a previous chapter- the depiction of nature had a significant meaning in both, Japanese and North Korean, works. While the Western movies concentrated on the human who is located above the nature, the Japanese cinema puts human being in the nature, as part of the world he inhabits. Images of sky, mountains, islands, forests and other natural elements are similar parts of Japanese paintings and films like their North Korean counterparts. However, considering the repetitive depiction of nature as an allegory of nationalism and its -a simple but true- admiration, is a simplification. Likewise the length and emotions, nature has special functions in Japanese and North Korean movies. While the Japanese movies illustrate nature as powerful and immortal, the humans are depicted from far, appearing as tiny figures. On the other hand, the focal point of the Western movies is the man, who can rule over the nature. The close ups concentratte on the characters rather than the nature. The case of North Korean movies is quite special as they contain their Asian origins inherited from Japanese approach-, however, the Western influence copied from Soviet movies- is also recognizable. In the last part of the section, I will mention some examples from The Tale of Chunhyang for the depiction of the surroundings, for instance how birds are the metaphor of romance or what the Sun exactly means in North Korean movies. Nevertheless, one should not forget those closeups on faces of the revolutionary characters with bright tearing eyes, invoking the Soviet socialist realist works. These parts usually emerge at the long sufferings of the protagonists or at the end of the movie when the revolutionary victory is achieved. North Korean movies use elements of nature for targeted allegorical themes likewise their Japanese origins. On the other hand, the human being is not subordinated by nature. By contrast, the man can achieve the full condition of North Korean socialist paradise, which is harmonized with philosophical meaning of Juche (man is the master of the universe), and the depiction of the typical character, the hidden heroes/local heroes. Therefore, the depiction of the revolutionary man (Soviet pattern) is also as essential in North Korean works as the allegories of the nature. The celebration of nature in the case of The Tale of Chunhyang appears in the same way like in plenty of North Korean movies in wide rage of film catergories from classical, historical adaptations and military movies to family melodramas. The main role of the nature is to create and shape the main atmosphere and mood. The opening scenes of the beautifully pictured colorful trees, flowers and cherry blossom foreshadow the romantic atmosphere of the story. The mountains and temples of the medieval Korea assist as living characters during the whole movie. The romance is not only pictured by a pure trees and flowers but a sparrow couple and a wild duck couple by moonlight or mackerel-sky with the Sun. The gloomy atmosphere is also illustrated by natural elements rather than zooming on characters faces, namely gathering of dark clouds. The change of seasons symbolizes the passing of time, which is an indirect reference to the couples spent time together. Besides, the narratives of the original story, that transform the dialogues melodramatic, also fit to the traditional North Korean straightforward narrative line tied to Juche ideology, namely punishing the exploiters of the past, glorifying the Leader, achieving self-development and happiness for the collective in a classless society through revolutionary struggle and self-sacrifice. Preserving one of the central elements, the Confucian message of the story -namely the filial duty-, has been successfully achieved in Yu and Yuns version although it also reprogrammed the tale to read as a stark conflict between the proletarian and bourgeois virtues. Thus, the movie is dancing on the edge between traditional Confucian morals and revolutionary spirit dictated by socialist (and Juche realist) morals. Yu Won Jun and Yung Ryung Gyus The Tale of Chunhyang (1980) probably produced the most modest and purest version of the folktale, including beautiful sets and cinematography. Furthermore, it is probably the closest approach to the classic conservative style of Chunhyang-jeon origins. North Korean filmmakers used the image of a simple (note modest and natural) beauty, who could be portrayed -at the same time- the strongest and the most independent Chunhyang among all versions. By contrast, although Shin Sang-ok described Chunhyangs character as a more vulnerable female who is more depended on the male protagonist, still, he could open a dangerous door to the world of North Korean strictly prudish morals and could provoke the image of North Korean beauty standards. As we will see from next chapters that he could introduce intimacy and sexual objectification of the female body with much more courage than anybody dared to do it before. Depiction of female sexual identity as the central object of the male gaze was especially exceptional in a traditionally closed and patriarchal class system like the North Korean has had. 2.5. Social and Cinematic Policy of Kim Jong Un New Directions The succession of Kim Jong Un at the beginning of 2012 was not as well-prepared and expected as his fathers in the 1980s. Consequently, the propaganda machine did not have enough time to prepare his son as the next official successor in a gradual and conscious way like in the case of Kim Jong Il since the 1980s. At the same time, the propaganda depicted him as a leader who especially focuses on the physical and mental needs of the citizens by providing them higher quality food, more fashionable clothes, more chances to enjoy their leisure time via sports, music and other fields of entertainment. Indeed, Kim Jong reckons on cinema as one realm of leisure, likewise sports, literature or music. The consumer economy and consumer society became visible priorities for the Kim Jong Un-regime in order to show the human image of the country. 2.5.1. Revolution of Television As previously mentioned, Kim Jong Un has focused on consumerism and Leisure Policy, in which he has found the television as the most effective tool to entertain the masses (including with mass education) following South Korean models and patterns. At the same time, the North Korean television drama series also promote the new policies of Kim Jong Un, namely sports, technology and science (including nuclear strategy). According to the main film distributor of the DPRK, the Korea Film Export Import Corporation in Pyongyang has been publishing a North Korean movie star calendar for many years. Recently, all still images used in the calendar were strictly from feature films. However, since 2017 issue the features scenes have been covered of TV drama series on about half of its pages.This might suggest that movies play a much smaller role in North Korea nowadays than before and television industry has gained a much more central focus as it has been brought in the forefront since 2012. The new focus on TV drama series by North Korea seems a reaction to the South Korean hallyu wave, which was demanded by the domestic audience. Surely, the tendency of imitation of South Korean K-pop and hip hop dance, the South Korean character images in TV series, singing of popular songs using by South Korean tone, words and even dialect, hidden sneaked into every segment of the North Korean cultural life. As the South Korean products are extremely popular in the North, the authorities had to admit that adjusting the influence of the older brother into North Korean environment was the most apparent and least dangerous method for the regime due to the high demand among the North Korean audiences. Due to the interviews, South Korean productions are more popular among North Koreans than their own ones. The people consider South Korean movies/shows more silent (note less overemotional) versus their domestic ones. Additionally, these products are much more escapists comparing to the socialist realist counterparts. Thus, they could serve a more entertaining sphere vis–vis the outdated messages of North Korean works that seem neither fascinating, nor believable for the domestic audience. Presently, there is a trend of praising relative realism than socialist one as people want to watch movies in order to entertain not for mass education purposes. People are more interested in South Korean movies because they could see pure fun and action on the screen. Moreover, many defectors claimed that these movies helped and even motivated them to leave their home. Chapter 3 The Development of Shin Sang-oks Cinematic Concept and North Koreas Interest in Shins Art 3.1. Birth of the Korean Realism in Cinematic Discourse Shin Sang-ok was considered as one of the founding fathers of Korean realist cinema, mainly influenced by Italian neo-realist school. In order to understand the symbolism of South Korean post-Korean War cinema, one has to learn its theoretical background, namely neo-realism. The chapter begins with discussing this film movement, stressing its main outlines and representatives. The next section aims to depict Korean realist features through Shin Sang-oks first Chunhyang-jeon adaptation (1961). It will be essential in order to highlight the contrasts between his South- and North Korean Chunhyang-jeon adaptations. 3.1.1. Neo-realism in General While socialist realism started to dominate at cultural fields of North Korea in the post-Korean War era, the new-realism did the same on the South. This section turns to the artistic theory of neo-(or new) realism inherited mainly by Italy. In addition, this film discourse was originated from the genre of documentary. Besides Shin, most of the prominent South Korean film directors followed the European neorealist movement. As Jeong mentions, Yoo Hyun-mok, the director of Aimless Bullet (1961) watched De Sicas neorealist Bicycle Thieves (1948) that made a profound impression on him. Neo-realism rapidly spread not only to South Korea but also the global cinema from the 1940s. It affected the appearance of French New Wave cinema (Renoir, Godard, Truffaut), Hollywood cinema (Frank Capra, Orson Welles), Indian neorealism (Parallel Cinema represented by Satyajit Ray), Japanese New Wave (Akira Kurosawa), and Brazilian Cinema Novo (New Cinema), just to name a few. The French film critic, Andre Bazin, defines neorealism as it tends to give back to the cinema a sense of the ambiguity of reality. Note that Soviet socialist realist cinema and neorealist cinema contain several overlaps related to approach of reality. The most obvious common point is the reflection on the social issues of a nation. The main difference is in the interpretation and their narration styles since neorealists did not try to polish the cruel reality as the socialist realists projected a shiny and optimistic future for the society. On the contrary, they imaged poverty and desperateness of low- and middle classes in a rather gloomy and pessimistic way. Thus, the unhappy endings left the main narrative open. By contrast, the socialist realist movies have optimistic endings in order to give a hope for the masses living in the socialist paradise bringing the bright and happy future. In many aspects both movements were resulted by political situations, however, neorealists tried to keep away themselves from the government while the socialist realists were ordered to follow the doctrines of the Party thus it was a state-depended school. While neorealists criticized the main social policies of the actual governments reflecting on post-war conditions, the socialist realists criticized the past bourgeois exploiter system and glorified the new way of socialism. Thus, neorealists became the voices of the opposition resulted by a relatively free choice, while the socialist realists were the voices of the central Party, which was a full-controlled order without freedom of choice. According to Bazin, neorealism is characterized by a general atmosphere of authenticity. Bazin also argues that truth, naturalness, authenticity have to be imaged in neorealist films. The necessary characteristics of neo-realism in film include () a definite social context a sense of historical actuality and immediacy political commitment to progressive social change authentic on-location shooting as opposed to the artificial studio a rejection of classical Hollywood acting styles extensive use of non-professional actors as much as possible a documentary style of cinematography. According to several film scholars, neo-realism started with the Italian prototype classic, namely Luchino Viscontis Obsession (1942). In addition, Roberto Rosselinis Rome, Open City (1945) or Germany Year Zero (1948), Federico Fellinis La Strada (1954) and Vittorio de Sicas Bicycle Thieves (1948) are the most prominent representatives of this groundbreaking film movement. Neorealist movies usually discuss topics set in the postwar environment where the whole country was in great despair that resulted necessity of escapism in cultural works. Thus, there neorealist works perfectly reflect on the depressing, pessimistic and dark postwar period when the nation was wrecked both mentally and socially. The rich class was in minority but the most people were poor left on the periphery. The main difference between the two film influences of North- and South Korea can be found in the ending of the storyline. Neorealist movies are negatively shocking, desperate and directly image the tragic reality. On the other hand, socialist realist works show a positive image for the society with shiny optimism and hope at the end. Despite the hardships, the main protagonists receive the positive happy ending and can transform into a morally positive figure in socialist realist terms. However, the endings of neorealist movies are totally the opposite as they do not provide fake dreams to the audience but the cold reality. These movies almost never end with positive finish but with open endings that led sometimes into murders or committing suicides. These brutal endings are the allegories of human reflections to the hopeless tones and permanent distresses. There is no savior who can help for the low class and there is no hope for a better future vis–vis in socialist realist works. While socialist realist works look like well-performed theater plays, new realists do not aim to beautify the rigid reality and bring grit of the streets to the big screen. 3.1.2. Influence of Neo-realism in Korea Neo-realism changed the way of world film trends and languages, including in the period of so-called second Golden Age of Korean cinema (1955-1972), when genre of melodrama came into style again, like in the period of first Golden Age under the Japanese occupation. At the beginning of the 1960s, only 87 films were produced and released in South Korea, which increased to the number over 200 by the end of the decade. Shin Sang-ok was considered one of the most influential filmmaker of this film period. Nevertheless, Chris Berry calls the trio of Shin Sang-ok, Yoo Hyun-mok and Kim Ki-yong as the fathers of Korean realist cinema. The 1960s were the years when cinema was the rising genre for both sides of Korea since it could help to cure the mental wounds caused by the Japanese colonial period and the Korean War. Films started to suggest that siblings were not supposed to be separated, especially under other foreign powers instructions, as the two countries were encapsulated in one identity and national roots. The division as a national tragedy broke a common historical and cultural line between the two parts of the peninsula. 3.2. Golden Years of Shin Sang-ok It is undeniable that Shin played a significant role in bringing neo-realism on the Korean peninsula, as Keumsil and Williams emphasize it Among the most significant directors of the Golden Age was Shin Sang-ok, brought a number of the tenets of Italian neo-realism to Korea, including location setting and the unabashed depiction of social issues. Shin Sang-ok was born in Chongjin, Hamgyongy province (now in North Korea) in 1926 and studied surrealist arts in Tokyo Arts University in 1944. He was mainly influenced by Japanese cinema, Italian neorealism, and French New Wave (nouvelle vague). During the bombings of Tokyo, he returned home and became the assistant of Choe In-gyu, the director of Homeless Angels (1941) and the neorealist-style Hurray Freedom (1946). From the beginning, he was committed to realism in both conventional and avant-garde ways () balancing between art and entertainment. In addition, Shins one of the strongest cinematic influences was Charles Chaplin from he could learn grotesque and satire elements. He liked Chaplin as he was a multifunctional movie genius who could not only direct his movies but at the same time he wrote the screenplay and even composed the music. According to Western filmmaking process, the direction-first policy does not only mean that the first prioritized position is for the director but also that he has the right and often the task to change the details of the storyline in regard of his creation and new ideas during the process. While most of the South Korean realist filmmakers belonged to this school, the film trends on the North were slightly different. In North Korean filmmaking process, the script writer stands on the highest position of the film hierarchy and not the director. This status is more rigid and more considered as a worker not as a creative artist whose main tasks are to supervise the editing process but most of all to put on screen (mise-en-scene) that the scenario demands in the shortest time. The speed campaign, being also part of Juche art-principle, is one of the most significant requirements from the director. These different demands, requirements and film education caused serious difficulties for Shin Sang-ok after his North Korean film arrival since he got several critiques and offenses on his more detailed, more sophisticated and slower filming process. Nevertheless, as Chung highlights, the mass pan and labor montage had been played key roles not only in Soviet socialist realism, Maos Chinese cinema and North Korean cinema during the late 1950s and 1960s but the same contents dominated in Italian neorealism. Likewise the previous mentioned movie schools, Shin Sang-ok used mass scenes for symbolizing the image of strong and massive Korean nation and labor images depicted the enlightenment meanings of the country, notably the development of education, economy and infrastructure, emerging in Rice and Evergreen. On the merits of Shins presence, a shift could emerge from the conditions of previous filmmaking tendency through the discovery of the act of the actors/actresses and other extras like sound and special effects. As I mentioned, they were the first color and widescreen (Cinemascope) Korean movies and Shin even used more expensive Kodak film brought from Japan- for the shooting. At that time, people differentiated the two movies as Shin Chunhyang and Hong Chunhyang. Besides, it was a serious competition between the two Chunhyang-actresses, Kim Chi-mi and Choi Eun-hee. Although Kim was the most celebrated Korean actress of the time, paradoxically this fame caused her failure. The audience could not believe her as a true Chunhyang as she was always portrayed as an A-class celebrity in her private life, too. However, these star allures did not help for the movie, on the contrary, they made the character of Chunhyang discredited. Thus, the cast of the younger actress, Choi Eun-hee, was a way better choice praised by the audience. Shins South Korean version (1961) tells about family background of Chunhyang quite detailed as the title also focuses on her Yangban class by mentioning her fathers family name, Seong. Firstly, it shows the controversial clash between social classes as her name in the title consists of Yangban Seong and gisaeng Chunhyang at the same time. Secondly, it also foreshadows the male-female interaction but mainly the male power and his interference in a way that Chunhyang cannot step out from the circle of the males but she can only remain their inferior part. As expected, these elements invoke Shins North Korean version (1984), in which Chunhyang also becomes the passive object. Moreover, the central sexual object of the males who represent the dominant active players. The subject-object correlation addresses the vertical hierarchical dependence between the different genders in the same was as Shin showed it in his South Korean version. Even the camera movement illustrates the superior-subordinate relation in the scene when Mongryong calls his two servants from above of the house while staring Chunhyang who is located vertically below Mongryong. As Bang-ja, the servant, also stresses the hierarchical difference between male and female The butterfly follows the flower but a flower cannot follow the butterfly, which sends the patriarchical message that the female is expected to be faithful and self-sacrificing while waiting passively for the active male. The good wife-metaphor emerges in a later scene when Chunhyang helps Mongryong to concentrate on his studies by not disturbing her. Moreover, Mongryong considers even the age difference which is a typical Confucian motive- more important than the social class differences. However, the pre-marital sexuality is an eternal dilemma in the original storyline since it clashes the Confucian morals- that had to be resolved somehow. In Shins version, the corrections are carried out by supernatural elements like depiction predictions, fortune telling, and visions. Shin also uses these absolved elements in his northern adaptation. Yet, this story is not a simple love story but it is about corruption and class fight against the unjust feudal conditions by radically changing the corrupt system. The new governor is the metaphor of injustice, autocracy and corruption. His way of thinking tells a lot about the nature of authoritarian regimes. He reviles the previous governor, Mongryongs father, that he was corrupt one since he could not keep enough prisoners in the prison He (the previous governor) must be corrupted. He could not catch criminals, which justifies the sticks and carrots system in a repressive system. Shin could not surmise that he would be an active worker with the same story in twenty years later in an authoritarian system. Also, it is an emancipated gender movie that suggests strength, braveness, equal rights and power for the emancipated women class in a men-dominated society, like Korea has been. As the movie stresses the main message about Chunhyang towards society (especially the females) You are the strongest woman. Your delicate soul has endured the oppression of the corrupted official and has remained faithful to what you believe in. () Your name shall be known to all across the nation and throughout all generations. Since the majority of viewers were middle-class women, the message successfully reached its target and gave strength and hope for them. The soft poetry is a returning element in Shins version as it stands against the rules of moral ethic and basic principles of education and social behavior towards women. Education is also a symbol of emancipated women who are encouraged to speak out for the same rights for equal education purposes. On the other side, Shins rival counterpart, Hongs The Love Story of Chunhyang (1961) characterized Chunhyang as a nave and sometimes spoiled feminine image of sexually entertainer identified also by her gayageum. The musical instrument of gayageum is a sexual metaphor for Chunhyangs body in Hongs version, which does not reflect only on Chunhyangs talent but mainly on evocative eroticism. It seems that South Korean audience was not interested enough yet in sexual entertainer at that time but more on the representative of Korean national identity embodied in Chunhyang. Despite the unclothing scene of Chunhyang in Shins version, Chunhyangs body has a more glorious meaning, namely the metaphor of the country, more precisely the Korean nation. Chunhyangs soul and body testify the whole Korean nation, which has been tortured under a long, painful and unjust feudal system. The Japanese colonial period just strengthened this feeling against the suppressors. This was one of the reasons why Japanese government banned the 1935 movie adaptation. Chunhyangs last wish spent in prison invokes to take her body after her execution by Mongryong, not letting anyone touching it. For this reason, Chunhyangs unfairly executed corpse would symbolize the Korean nation itself under its unfair hardships and suffers. Chunhyang consciously prepared for her death as she already gave up of the hope to see again her fianc who could save her life and uphold the justice. Additionally, the couples deep interpersonal emotions reflect to the modern social element of shifting gender roles and female emancipation of South Korea, being ready to break out from its traditional Confucian circle. Even from the first minutes, the opening frames illustrate the young couple in close-ups. Not surprisingly, Shin also applied this special combination in Love, Love, My Love (1984). On the one hand, Confucian morals and respecting traditional habits of the past through depiction of filial duty and images of national symbols like Korean traditional masks and clothes- stand against modernism through images of apolitical (note interpersonal) love as the main focal point of storyline, on the other hand. Interestingly, both Chunhyang-jeon Shin-adaptations were made in the periods of political transitions, which locate the two films in new lights. Seong Chunhyang was made after the collapse of Rhee Syng-man government and before the coup of Park Chung-hee on 16 May 1961. Love, Love, My Love was shot during the period of power transfer from Kim Il-Sung to Kim Jong Il. Considering these political changes, the character of Mongryong can be interpreted as the new successor in both countries who is able and willing to make reforms within North and South Korean society. Although Shin Sang-ok never claimed publicly that the male protagonist could represent the figures of Park Chung-hee in the South and Kim Jong Il in the North, still, the viewer has similar feeling especially with having knowledge of the historical and political backgrounds of the conditions of the movie shootings. One can imagine that the audience at that time (in the early 1960s in the South and the 1980s in the North) unconsciously but immediately identified Mongryong Lee with the leaders of South and North. Consequently, the image of Mongryong quite differed from the earlier depictions on both sides. Seong Chunhyang describes him as a strong, handsome, rich and independent reformer who is popular among girls and who can bring justice for people but does not ignore the positive Confucian morals. On the contrary, Shin marks out the traditional ethics of Confucian moral ethics like modesty, obedience, chastity, the ideal female image of self-sacrifing wife, the depiction of Mongryongs filial duty. At the same time, he is figured as a modern and newcomer reformer by the end of the story. In some context, he even steps out from the circle of the Korean patriarchal standards, which is demanded by the Park Chung-hees modernization era. Nevertheless, Shins open political attraction to Park Chung-hee last for a decade. The director started to openly criticize Parks suppressing and authoritarian policy and censorship by the 1970s. The military regime took revenge on Shin. After following some tax fraud trials in the case of his studio, he was forced to close the Shin Films in the middle of 1970s. In conclusion, the success of Shins Chunhyang-jeon adaptation can be found in the original narrative and the historical accuracy. He even criticized Hongs failure when he addressed that Hong Seong-ki failed because he didnt do his homework. Shin also handled the color technique equipped cameras with mix of long-, medium shots and slow tracks, pans by leisurely movements than Hong who was not that brave enough to play with the advantages of the new film tools as he used still the old way of medium-close shots. The other part of the success was rather close to the Korean identity, representing the beauty and spirit of Korea. Shin plays these patriot emotions quite well by using the new technique and dramaturgy minimalism that caught the taste of the urban and rural masses either in a time of full-scale industrialization. The long, static takes and landscape shots could fulfill the requirements for the nostalgic desire of the audience in the hectic days of machinery of modernization. Interestingly, Shin could win with depiction of sexuality in North in 1984, which Hong lost the battle in South in 1961. In addition, the positive result of the offensive competitive film campaign was more substantial. Its comic and tragic elements were more convincing and entertaining, including its bright colors, more authentic acting and energetic performances. Shin had more detailed eyes on depicting the folklore story historically more authentic rather than Hong, not only in implementation of acting, sets, decoration and costumes but also in support of cinematography including the camera moving (mainly medium and long shots, slow pans). The static and color cinemascope lens and the brand new Kodak film even enhanced the bright images on the screen, which represented the beauty and ideal national image of Korea. 3.4. Policy and Attitude of North Korea Towards Shin Sang-oks Cinema Reasons for Abduction This section mainly highlights the most often mentioned critical points of North Korean cinema, realized by Kim Jong Il. These recognitions led to fact that the international boost of North Korean film industry could not be carried out without external help of the abducted South Korean film couple. As the second chapter underscored, the main film discourse of North Korea could not satisfy the interests of citizens in a long term due to its repetitive contents and schematic style. Accordingly, expecting that North Korean cinema could rise to an elite cinematic player on the international stage was only a nave desire since the non-changing film tendency was not able to generate its international fame as Kim Jong Il wished. On the contrary, its reputation began to decline domestic. The schematic contents have shortly become boring vis–vis neorealist works of Shin Sang-ok. Similar dilemma has been arisen in the hardcore socialist realist years of the USSR where filmmakers were ordered to make movies for the millions but as Youngblood puts the question- would the millions want to see them The film interest of people and the film interest cinema policy makers were getting further from each other and the aesthetic cultural tastes of the masses required more developed, and more quality-based movies from the official Party cadres. Several allegorical themes, -including anti-Japanese and later anti-US struggle or the happy life of our happiest nation-, have been repeated as many times as they could not reach the threshold of the audience any more. The didactic and moralizing nature of North Korean movies lost the favor of the North Korean audience as the majority of the audience wanted to watch entertaining movies instead of political propaganda works. In addition, Kim Jong Il often criticized socialism because its guaranteed benefits, which caused lack of motivation for the people. He originated the problems of North Korean cinema from the same roots as film industry people could feel financially safe even if they performed only minimally, so they didnt try hard. By contrast, the southern counterparts always aspired to create something new in contents, forms and methods. Kim Jong Il also noticed that the topics based on national self-reliance ideology would not attract other countries but only the DPRK. Thus, these films could not be fully understood and appreciated outside of the borders. As Kim Jong Il made criticism to the filmmakers There are so many crying scenes, like a funeral. Why arent there any movies without crying scenes Kim Jong Il compared the North Korean filmmakers as kindergarten students who just learned how to walk (), the Southerners are university-level. Martin also adds Kim Jong Ils statement that the southern artists could learn how to use high-level film technologies, Ah, Im saying that we might be the last among the lagging films. He did not only admit the backwardness of North Korean cinematic industry but also the narrow-mindedness of the North Korean filmmakers who only see things within the perimeters of our fence and believe we are the best. Due to the above mentioned reasons, the cultural leader Kim Jong Il aimed to revive and flourish the film industry. He wanted to reach these ambitions through external influence achieved by the powerful new force Shin Sang-ok. As the Dear Leader mentioned after Shins release to Choi Mr. Shin will be my film advisor from now on. Obviously, the main reason of abducting Choi Eun-hee and Shin Sang-ok was mainly the global visibility of North Korean cinema, while the ideological teaches for domestic audience was secondary. Kim Jong Il needed the talented and experienced film couple in order to reform and give a new direction for the North Korean films to increase the quality standards of North Korean filmmaking in order to attract and entertain more people domestically. As Kim Jong Il stressed, well solve our film dilemma, in which he meant that he already planned in advance the abduction of the South Korean film couple. Furthermore, he mainly aimed to target the international markets to recognize the potentials of North Korean cinema. The abduction line confirmed the difficult situation of North Korean film industry and Kim Jong Ils desperate hope for film savior in form of Shin. I absolutely needed you, as the leader explained the reasons of abduction to Shin. Instead of teaching the North Korean filmmakers about new ways of directing, Kim preferred to kidnap the South Korean version of glamour couple Orson Welles and Rita Hayworth. As Kim Jong Il told Shin during a private talk You must serve as a model so that our film directors will follow naturally. You will play the role of a pioneer. That was my intent when I brought you here, but your role goes further. It goes without saying. (Kim Jong Il to Shin Sang-ok, 1983) The South Korean film couple could enjoy a full luxury the Kim Jong Il provided them since the beginning of their active film work (1983), including their private villa with own private studio (Shin Films), the 700-member of staff (along with Hong Kong and Japan crew members), and permitting them shooting at foreign locations of Northeast China and Eastern Europe. Sometimes Shin even stepped over the borders of the politeness with Kim Jong Il by asking him to free himself (and his movies) from the cult of personality. During their three-year-long dynamic film activity, Choi and Shin shot around twenty movies (seven Shin-directed ones and seventeen Shin-produced ones) and during this period Kim Jong Il has never complained about their works. Nonetheless, they were the only ones in privileged position, which was well-known among film circles since if someone other tried to shoot films differently and more creatively, Kim Jong Il and the film community considered him as a rebel and a dangerous element for the system. As expected, Shin Sang-ok received several jealous critics from North Korean film rivals, for instance from the film mentor of Kim Jong Il, Choe Ik-gyu, the director of North Korean classics, Sea of Blood and The Flower Girl. For the luck of Shin and Choi, they were always protected by the Great Leader and the Dear Leader, thus, they were considered as untouchables until their escape. Chapter 4 Shin Sang-oks Influence on North Koreas Socio-cultural Life (1983-1986) 4.1. Shin Sang-ok Enters the Scene Nevertheless, Kim Jong Il neither wanted to show Western film examples to some selected North Korean directors, nor he wanted to send some to Western countries to learn new way of film theories and aesthetics. The irony for the whole North Korean leadership is that the main leaders including the Kim dynasty- have been locked into their prison. It also worked in the film industry at that time as the cultural leader was strongly depended on their prisoners, Shin and Choi. This was the same issue with the case of organizing an international film festival in Pyongyang. Kim Jong Il privately confessed to director Shin why he did not prefer to host an international film festival. The reason was simple. The leader stressed that North Koreans were lack of quantity and quality to show their films for the international public. This tendeny changed in 1987 when the first Pyongyang Film Festival was officially organized. However, Shin was not offended publicly by others since he and Choi enjoyed the exceptional treatment of Kim Jong Il. By contrast, Shin was asked to teach other North Korean filmmakers how to make enjoyable movies. This is the reason why Shin participated as co-producer or co-director in many other North Korean movies in which he could have been the main influential filmmaker. Shin Sang-ok arrived to the North Korean cinematic field at the time when the leadership also entered to the relaxation atmosphere of cultural policy. Through this process the Korean classics of the forgotten past has been revived and their values have been corrected showing their original values. The renaissance period of these classics gave a good opportunity for Shin to remake two Korean classic folklores from the stories of Chunhyang-jeon and Shim Cheong-jeon. While the former work showed love in his way, the Shim Cheong-story resurrected the filial duty in its original Korean and Confucian form, mixing fantasy elements into the story. Shin also proudly announced that he was the first who displayed the names of actors, actresses and the whole film crew in the opening credits. The previously tendency was opposite of it since according to Kim Jong Il- star cult could divide the attention from the main story line and it could destroy the value of the movie. Thus, Shin Sang-ok was the one who began to introduce the celebrity-cult in a more direct way. As Nora Oh mentions, Shin Sang-ok was really the only one who could be called a designer or as historian Yi Yong-hil called him as a genre master and master of the mise-en-scene since he shot films in genres of horror, western, action, spy, comedy, family, and gender melodramas. In addition, he followed the latest technical video trends, color cinemascope, zoom lenses, synch sound recording. On behalf of his North Korean activity, the actors/actresses could have been identified through not only their roles and character names but also their real names. Despite his innovations, Shin received many critics in North Korea on his filming style by other competitors. These critics mainly focused on the fact that Shin concentrated on the directing process and did not analyze fully the script. Lee Myong-ja points that Shin was unhappy of the internal critiques in North Korea. He often felt offended, not understood and not respected due to his filming style, which was unfamiliar for most of his North Korean fellows. Despite the internal critics and envy film fellows, his films reached huge successes in the theatres. The movie-lover North Korean cinema society praised Shins movies as they experienced something different than they were accustomed. In addition, Shin was inspected strangely by Party cadres and other filmmakers on how much time he spent on setting the scenes. Therefore, he could not fit to the spirit of Juche-art based on speed theory that should have been also adjusted into film production processes. The Party cadres and North Korean filmmakers simply did not understand why Shin considered the quality of the film more important than the speed of the process, which is a basic principle of Juche filmmaking. For these reasons, Shin Sang-oks style was misunderstood under North Korean conditions among his film fellows but highly celebrated among the audience. 4.2. First Successes and Fame 4.2.1. An Emissary of No Return (1984) Although the movie was set in the Netherlands, it was shot in Prague at Czechoslovakias famous Barrandov Film Studio, except from the opening credits with real image of Hague. Due to the Eastern European shootings, Shin could employ numerous foreign actors, which was impressive for the North Korean audience. Nevertheless, the contents were unrealistic since there was nobody who committed suicide at that conference. Interestingly, Shin bravely depicted character of Yi Chung who is supported by himself and his family without mentioning of the future liberator and ideology of the country. On the one hand, it fit to the Juche-image of the self-struggling and independence stage of the protagonist, however, missing the references of Kim Il Sung was definitely a new approach. 4.2.2. Manchurian Movies Runaway (1984) and Salt (1985) Although Shin could make unusual and sometimes shocking experiments in North Korean cinematic era, he did not receive any known formal or informal punishment from the leadership. Moreover, the domestic and international successes of his movies justified for Kim Jong Il the correctness of the abduction. Love, Love, My Love was not the only movie that showed the fact that something, which was allowed to Shin, the same thing was not allowed to someone else. For instance, the infamous rape scene of Salt (1985) remained memorable in the North Korean audience, which had to defended publicly by Kim Il Sung who emphasized that the scene was motivated by art. Jeon Young-seon points that the North Korean film crew ran away at the shooting of the rape scene, worried about the consequences. This remark also affirms that Shin installed something that has never existed before on North Korean screen. Additionally, the films sync sound record and usage of unusual dialect, the real explosion scene of Runaway (1984) or shooting the first monster film confirm that Shin was in privileged position in the hermit kingdom. In addition, both stories were adapted from short novels, Runaway was written by the Korean Gorky, Chae Seo-hae, in 1924 and Salt was a short story of Kang Kyeong-ae written in 1934. Both show the suffering period of Korean nation through the mirror of family- and individual tragedies mistreated by Japanese and traitor Chinese and Korean collaborators. They show the distresses, the despair and the hardships in a neo-realist way, probably brought from Shins South Korean filming period. At the same time, the socialist realist style could not be missed from these works as the spectator had to wait the arrival of the socialist saviors until the very end of the storylines (similarly to the storyline of The Flower Girl). The comrade groups and resistant freedom fighters appear in the last minutes in both movies in order to help the protagonists. The male protagonist of the Runaway is helped by given a dynamite to explode the train of the enemy, while the female heroine of the Salt is enlightened through her agony. By the end, she realizes that the lives of Koreans under the Japanese aggression were like food without salt and her last socialist realist political message is that communism is the salt of the world. Both films contain the typical socialist realist elements, like staying in the darkness, long-term agony, suffering and enduring injustice until the last moment when the messianic savior arrives. Nonetheless, as mentioned before, Shin does not depict the images in shiny optimistic form of socialist realism but he takes the grey and depressive approach of neo-realism. On the contrary, the endings echo the typical socialist realist optimistic hope, thus, the typical neo-realist open ends are missing from these works. Furthermore, the archetypal elements of socialist realism, including targeting the cruelty of the enemies, focusing on the class differences and unfair system that mistreats the poor, have been carried successfully through both movies. Due to the several overlaps between neo-realism and socialist realism related to their contents, the three Shin-works (including Breakwater) show the similarity frames and elements of the two movements. The revolutionary awakening for class consciousness closes the storylines with direct Juche-realist political messages, warning the audience of the North Korean socialist realist fashion. Shin also could show other filmmakers in North Korea how to keep the attention and interest despite the lethargic and agonistically depressive topics. Shins enlightenment films contain dynamism, actions, twists or new elements that kept the audiences curiosity. As Chung stresses, Shin could tip the scale toward cinematic pleasure () and aestheticize the process of suffering and maximize the suddenness. At the period of the renaissance of the Korean classics in the 1980s, Shin could introduce genre musical in a different way. Love, Love, My Love (1984) differs from the previous North Korean versions (1959 and 1980) not only in terms of forms but also in terms of the contents. Shin developed the meaning of love from the official Party-dogmatic level to an interpersonal dimension meanwhile he could also bring unusual technical methods that have never been used before. Furthermore, Shins musical contains Western-type of music and ballet dances. Shin has given key roles to design and colors, which are more highlighted in this version. Moreover, the usage of word love in title was also unusual until that time. The three times multiplication of love and first utterance of love, referring to an interpersonal sexual relation, were considered scandalous according to strictly conservative North Korean standards and distressed the unprecedented explicitness of the movie. In certain respects, the character of Mongryong in Shins Love, Love, My Love follows the male-centered discourse and therefore it breaks the traditional North Korean approach since the previous North Korean version from 1980 focuses on Chunhyang as the main dominant character of the story. Furthermore, Yun and Yu illustrated her as an independent and strong revolutionary heroine, while Mongryong could stay only in the background as an additional character in the shadow of Chunhyang. In contrast, Shin sharply broke this tendency by positioning Mongryong in the front line by objectifying Chunhyang. First, she becomes only the male gazes sexual object, then, it is expanded to the full power of Mongryong subordinating Chunhyang. The facial characteristic of the actor who plays Myoryong Lee, named by Ri Hak-chol, is illustrated more charismatically than the previous ones. His first appearance shows the struggling with his studies and losing concentration because of the festivals noises. Showing Mongryong riding on a donkey depicts a more approachable and a more positive protagonist image with life-affirming songs and friendly smiles, like a Yangban with human face who is able to feel solidarity for the lower classes. Ultimately, Chunhyang is subordinated by Mongryong and the gender hierarchical relation emerges in both Shin-versions. Additionally, both Mongryong depictions underscore his innovator and reformer characteristics. As an authoritative and a political figure, he has the aspect of a mediator and a wished leader in the southern version, and a heroic authoritarian but reformist figure along with revolutionary views in the northern one. He is a subversive reformer who shows love for the people and treats them favorably, gaining public desire. Shin intentionally refers the depiction of sexual relationships. The display of love was imaged by intimate body touches and the notorious sexist scene of undressing the female character, which he also used in his previous southern version (1961). Sexuality also emerges in images of Byun Hakdo, depiciting him as a pervert sexual predator, wishing to touch body of Chunhyang immediately while gasping fast and hysterical. In the light of these features, the entire story could return to the backbone of its original storyline, the romantic and fabulous true love story, which has made the story so popular during the centuries on the peninsula. Thinking of different dimensions and experimentalizing with new techniques have always been a trade mark of Shin Sang-ok on both sides. What makes his North Korean movies truly unique is his innovative nature and often provocative avant-garde perspective. Through his experimental images, the positive emotions of love and friendship could find places like the depiction of deep tragedy, pathos and torture. Ultimately, only a few directors were able to have similar impacts on national cinemas of the two sides of Korea that Shin Sang-ok could achieve. There is a remarkable similar genre hybridization in Im Kwon-taeks version, Chunhyang (2000), and in Shin Sang-oks North Korean version, Love, Love, My Love (1984). The two talented directors did not only mix the genres of musical and historical costume drama but they also combined the elements of theatre and cinema into one. While other Chunhyang-jeon interpretations tell story in regular dialogues, Im and Shin were pioneers at this field, sending the story back to its origins, the pansori narration. Shin even used a more popular way via the tool of musical, learned by American examples like The Sound of Music (1965) or My Fair Lady (1964). Shin also illustrated the three dimensional performance atmosphere with theatrical elements installling in cinematic environment. Shin built huge ink-written boards in the movies memorable love-dance scene, where the hero and heroine play a love hide-and-seek performance among the human-sized paperboard settings, giving the illusion to be witnessed in front of a real theatre stage. Depiction of romance, Shins version does not contain direct naked images but only references to sexuality. In spite of not including explicit image of love scenes, the erotic references were enough to be meant a real erotic movie for the North Korean audience. The younger generation applauded for it because of the same reasons. On the other side, the conservative audience hated it. There was no neutral person on the movie and as we know controversy makes a film popular as it increases the interest. Even it was controversial, the majority of the audience praised Shin because of this movie. Nevertheless, these scenes could have caused shock for the audience at the time. Indeed, the well-known gossips around the movie at the beginning increased the interests, caused sensational popularity and hysterical ovations in the majority of the audience. The well-known interpreted defector stories on appearing illegal ticket sales and the permanent serious fights in the queues in front of the cinema also confirm that Shins movie stepped over those moral limits, which were hardly dared by other North Korean filmmakers before. Surely, people wanted to see real romance on screen with smooth body touch and sensual references like undressing. They were tired of half-hearted huggings that North Korean movies used. On the other side, the opponent voices criticized the movie due to the too open immoral behaviour of the couple on screen. Although the negative comments were in minority, still, some of them came from high officials. In addition, the director gives hints on the male-domination from its title (My Love). At the same time, this version contains an interesting part when Chunhyang visits the monument of her passed away father, which was never depicted before. The scene of visiting her fathers grave also highlights the controversy and social critics of Confucianism, namely that Chunhyang has to hide and deny her Yangban origins despite her noble status from her fathers bloodline. This internal rebellion is one of the main social conflict messages, which tries to underscore the social wish of Chunhyang that she should be considered as a Yangban and not as a gisaeng. Moreover, other versions do not provide much details on her fathers high social class status but more focused on her mothers gisaeng status. Nevertheless, Hyangjin Lee makes critics on this version, namely that Shin could not resolve Chunhyangs character, thus, the movie suffers from inconsistency in characterisation and theme. Indeed, Shin mainly focused on the interpersonal love rather than resolve the heroines character from controversial dichotomy. Therefore, this story is not only her (Chunhyang) story -like in the case of The Tale of Chunhyang (1980)- but it is rather their (Chunhyang and Mongyryong) story. In conclusion, the folk classic tale of Chunhyang-jeon has been remained one of the most well-known Korean love story, which represents the Korean identity as national heritage and pride. It does not only show a pure love story and social criticism of Chosons social class unfairness but also reflects to Korean nationalism. The story was imaged in several forms during centuries helped by technical developments. Its popularity is still undiminished in modern cultural adaptations. The changes can be found in the details as the focus points of the story shaped by tastes and point of views of filmmakers, pansori narrators, singers, theatrical directors and TV drama directors. While the South Korean movie versions focus more on the direct expression of the emotions of the individual characters through mirror of love, the North Korean one (1980) much more focuses on the importance of the collectivism filled with revolutionary ideas. The most remarkable difference is in the illustration of the female protagonist, Chunhyang. The South Koreans portray her as a daydreamer, vulnerable, shy gisaeng with full of sensitivity and erotic desires. On the contrary, Yun and Yus version (1980) focuses on her self-sacrificing personality. Moreover, she is illustrated as a masculine provider of the family whose main priorities are to work hard and rule over the whole Yangban class in order to create social justice for the low class in a utopian classless society. She could easily suppress her erotic emotions for great and lofty purposes. While the center of the story is about the love couple in South Korean versions, the North Korean version emphasizes the role of Chunhyang, who is portrayed more independent, than Mongryong. Also the latter one takes the moral issues more important, stressing to stay modest and hiding emotions in the public. Chapter 5 Shins Legacy on North Korean Cinema and Society in the Post-Shin Era (1986-1990s) 5.1. Legacy of Technical Innovations This part of the research focuses on the cinematic innovations that Shin brought to the North Korean film industry in the post-Shin era. The contents primarily focus on elements, which could survive after the late 1980s until the period of the Arduous March. Although it is difficult to prove Shins legacy in the North Korean industry after his escape, still, several scholars agree on the statement that Shin could bring new innovative film elements to North Korean film discourse. As Schnherr underlines, Shin could bring several developments both in contents and in techniques- that were used by later North Korean filmmakers. Moreover, the best North Korean film ever that brought solely entertainment for the first time, Hong Kil Dong, was also started by the supervision of Shin Sang-ok, as North Korea film experts Lee Myong-ja and Steven Chung highlight it. Unfortunately, this fact is barely known among wide public since the North Korean authorities did not admit that these new elements had been adopted by him. After the escape of the film couple, names of Shin Sang-ok and Choi Eun-hee were marked off from the official history of North Korean cinema. Shin had to always balance between his preferable mass entertainment style and the compulsory ideological dogmas in the DPRK, contrasting the typical mainstream institutional North Korean cinema on the one hand and the formalist, modernist (close to avant-garde) trends on the other one. Therefore, the innovations and limitations of Shin could be found in each of his North Korean works. One could see the marks of modernization in his North Korean productions. Due to the obvious limitations of the North Korean film discourses capacity, one could also realize these borders where it was not recommended to go beyond. For that reason, Shin had less space to maneuver his films towards groundbreaking new contents, which could not break with direct and hidden hints for socialist realism and Juche realism. Still, Shin often stepped over these social and political borders, and his theme-approach along with the methodology visibly differed from the previous tendencies. Chung correctly adds that his specialty lied in how the same institutions, modes and imperatives could work as popular art forms beyond the borders of ideological division. Moreover, the scholar stresses the main purpose of Shins presence on the Northern side of the peninsula, notably that he could prove an incline related to technical and stylistic approaches on the one hand, and honest enthusiasm from the domestic audience and successes at international film festivals on the other hand. In the light of these merits, Kim Jong Il was always satisfied with his abduction and because of it he could not forgive betray of Shin and Choi after 1986. As Chung writes, Shins North Korean productions both highlighted and troubled the border between Chungmuro (Hollywood of South Korea) and Pyongyang. In the followings, I summarize the most well-known innovations and atypical film approach of Shin through illustrating film stills in the frame of love-action-blood (violence) motives. Figure 1 Depiction of Love between Shins Realist Approach vis–vis Juche Realist Approach Besides his pioneer first pioneer films in North Korea, Shin was allowed to use real picture-in special effects displaying Chunhyangs dreams and nightmares (broken mirror, hanged straw man, furious typhoon, falling mountain) in her last night visions and hallucinations in Love, Love, My Love (1985). Furthermore, he effectively used sound effects like noisy female scream, painful sounds of beatings/tortures, scary sounds of nightmare elements. His preferred slow motion technique along with dostorted sound effects- has been also installed in the scene of smashing the human size porcelain vase where the governor is hiding. Shin always liked pushing the envelope with his provocative cinematic visions even in the South. Therefore, he was stepping on the edges between socialist realism and new realism by these innovation installments. Shin aslo applied the most special effect in his North Korean monster movie, Pulgasari a year later, in 1985. Imaging supernatural creatures, phenomena or even references was considered antirealist comparing to socialist realist standards. Thus, all antirealist parts were chased and forbidden to be imaged. However, Shin was allowed to present these elements of formalism. It was special not only in a way that it was the first time when North Korean audience could watch these scenes, but also the display of the official doctrines antithesis was unprecedented in North Korean cinematic history. The tradition of computer special effects used in Love, Love, My Love and The Tale of Shim Cheong- have been also continued in later movies, like Soul Protests and A Bulletproof Wall. Shin boldly broke the stereotypical North Korean film trend and reversed the movie industry to its original deserved place, into the social atmosphere. Shins fantasy, The Tale of Shim Cheong (1985), was also a groundbreaking work in its time in North Korea. Shin could mix traditions and modernism in a way that he also put hidden socialist realist elements in his movies, which fit to the image of the postwar national character. In addition, he depicted traditional national values, Korean essence (minjoksong), the Korean stereotypes inherited from the past. Tradition and Koreanization played a crucial role in process of innovation and modernization of the DPRK, which is still being created. In the new arena of North Korean socialism, the new national style and character with the new Korean essence can be found in contemporary cultural productions. Shins movies could guide the citizens attention towards the controversy and simultaneously changing political doctrines of the DPRK that also affected the cultural life. While the 1970s dominated a minimalist filmmaking atmosphere ignoring decadent Western techniques like special effects, often usage of close-ups and well-edited lightning effects, Shin was allowed to make his movies on his own volition. Furthermore, Shin became famous of romantic ballet-scenes of Love, Love, My Love shot in a studio, the fast cuts, dynamism, close-ups and light variations of Salt and Runaway or the special effects of Love, Love, My Love and Pulgasari. Before his arrival, the film doctrines were about using more natural lights outside than in artificial studios, banning fast-cutting and generally avoid detailed approach of filmmaking. The main reason was that if the film is made too detailed with bright images, then the images could take the attention from the message, thus, the audience could focus on the cinematic view rather than meanings of the dialogues. Nevertheless, Shin was not only approved to change these filmmaking techniques but praised by Kim Jong Il. Kim Il Sung also admired Shins works as commitment of realism. Moreover, he was also the first director who inserted quotation not from Kim Il Sung but from Western authors, for instance in Runaway. The movie begins with a quotation of Victor Hugo from Les Miserables. Shin went even further with his next movie Salt, which starts with a Bible quotation, since even reading Bible in the anti-religious DPRK is considered a strict crime. Shin himself called the opening Bible-citation (Matthew 513) revolutionary that was unimaginable previously. Summarizing of Shins cinematic legacies, I would emphasize the following main outlines. Shin introduced a new approach in action movies by installing martial arts fighting scenes with dynamic cuts and sound effects. Moreover, he gave an aesthetic meaning of blood by increasing the tension and depicting the torture in more graphic and direct way. The slow motion technique, he preferred to use, has been also followed in post-Shin North Korean movies. Other tools of special effects provided key factors in cinematic discourse since it brought formalism into the field. The depiction of hallucinations, dreams with distorted sounds and screams counted unprecedented forms in North Korean film style. The new approach of the spectacular waterworld scenes and image of monster could help in introducing genres of fantasy and horror. The image of love and romance was depicted in a much more direct and brave way than before, by illustrating direct body touches, undressing scenes, direct kiss and even raping scene. I can claim that almost of these new approaches have been utilized by later North Korean filmmakers. One segment could be exception, which is quoting from a foreigner or foreign book. Shin could be the only one who was allowed to cite not from Kim Il Sung but from a foreign (note Western) author or from the Bible. 5.2. The Social Effects of Shins Movies Shins movies had huge effects not only the movie habits and official way of the movies in North Korea but it had also wide socio-economic effects. In the followings, the section aims to suggest some of these impacts in order to see Shins North Korean movies from different perspectives. This part especially highlights what kind of female beauty changes he could bring in the society, namely how gender awareness has been depicted in his movies, especially in Love, Love, My Love. Surely, Shin-movies inspired cinema-fever in Pyongyang movie theatres, creating a new social phenomenon, ticket scalping, as mentioned before. In order to buy tickets, people rode horses rushing towards the ticket gates. Small illegal businesses seemed to appear around theatres as if someone could not get tickets at the gate, some ticket sellers sold them for three to four times expensive. This was the time when movie theaters were bribed and allowed illegal ticket selling. Besides, many people looked for jobs in cinema in order to see these movies several times. Most of all, the movies cultural influences have been remarkable. Shin caught and attracted the interests of people with real, atypical films. He gave back the faith that a movie could also be enjoyable and not only the official speaking tube of the regime. After watching Shin movies, people could feel relieved and relaxed. His movies were successful as he could put his own life experience, including love, distress, compassion, despair into his movies. Undoubtly, Love, Love, My Love (1984) was a liberally reprogrammed version, as the former section aimed to illustrate it. Although there had been rumors on a man-woman kissing scene before the premiere, also some literature assume incorrectly that it really happened. However, it needs to be underlined that direct lips-touch is never depicted in the movie but only in a hidden way from behind of Chunhyangs parasol. Nevertheless, the reference to the kiss was considered as a serious sexual scandal in North Korea in the mid-1980s, thus, the movie was rated R category. Furthermore, there is another scene that has caught the eyes of North Koreans. The famous scene of taking off Chunhyangs panties has captivated millions of North Koreans for a long time. The movie has become one of the biggest Shin-film box-office hits that melted the hearts of the people and remained one of the most memorable Shin-films among defectors. As Chung mentions, the first night is elliptical but daring () pushing the bounds of representation () of disrobing and lust. Shin pointed well on the one the most controversial points of the original story, which was extracted in the period of literary purge of the late 1950s. Shin intentionally depicted Chunhyangs female energy and the sexual attraction of a socially higher-positioned male by a lower-class female. Even the name of the female protagonist, Fragrance of Spring, implies the eroticism of the story. Moreover, the woman as symbol of flower has been often illustrated in Korean culture, mainly as its beauty, purity and nice scent. The flower that will blossom also refers to the maternity and the new life will be born. In North Korean framework, women are flowers are often used as flowers of life, flowers of happiness, and flowers of the country. Furthermore, the North Korean propaganda suggests the independence of the female character who can blossom by herself. Furthermore, the directors Yu and Yun want to illustrate shy but inside strong Chunhyang who is able to make self-decisions on her fate without any external (male) help. As previously mentioned, she portrays also the good housewife who cooks, makes the housework and takes care of the family members. Obviously, the traditional way of strong female character-image suggests the revolutionary heroine who can also sacrifice herself for the nation, the Party and the Leader. On the contrary, Shin Sang-ok brought sexism around the character of Chunhyang, which was a new phenomenon. As Lee Myong-ja interprets, the previous general female characters were asexual or in other words, genderless. She adds that the North Korean system does not differentiate genders in a sexual way. Indeed, that is why female characters have also typical men jobs, like soldier, industrial worker, miner, construction worker or revolutionary heroine. However, Shin made the gender identity visible in the North Korean cinema by bringing Jang San-hui for the main role. The outlook difference is also clearly recognizable but her soft gestures, her look into the eyes of the male protagonist, her softer voice and the requited body touches opened new windows in romance of North Korean screen. The public female image was transformed by a private female image in the movies of Shin. Public image meant the previously mentioned female stereotypes and the typical characters of mother, soldier, factory worker, farmer, or housewife without awareness of gender. Lee also points at an important factor when she claims that Shin has brought this new female image starting from his first North Korean movie, An Emissary of No Return (1984), which showed the citizens with the lowest songbuns for the first time. The main female protagonist is a court lady, thus, she cannot marry, however, the couple show public display of attraction by their mutual gazes. Nevertheless, I emphasize that after Shins defection most of these sexually enlightened female images were screened off. Moreover, there was a tendency to turn back to their original socialist and politically modest way. For instance, another beauty symbol of North Korea, Oh Mi-ran, testified the strong and patriot female in A Broad Bellflower, who insists on her countryside, her blossom refers to that she is also independent from male characters. The following figure illustrates the development of beauty images in North Korea through different depiction of Chunhyang. Figure 6 Development of Beauty Images for the Character of Chunhyang in North Korean Film Adaptations By conclusion, Shins movies had effects not only in cinema but also in society as well. The ticket scalping, influenced by Love, Love, My Love, showed a new trend in social life. Moreover, the people started to go to cinema to re-watch his movies because of joy. The celebrity cult was more speeded up by installing the credit list at the beginning of his movies. This trend also generated some Western social trend. At that time, teenagers started to put poster of their beloved actors/actresses in their rooms next to the portraits of leaders. He could also break the taboo of depicting songbun, especially that he depicted a lower class one. Moreover, the depiction of more direct love had significant effects on female-male interpersonal relations. The first cheating woman character and love triangle were depicted in his production. The traditional gender and beauty images have been changed not only in their physical appearances but also in the personalities. Despite his limited time in North Korea, Shin could have considerable effects on society as well. Chapter 6 Conclusion In the conclusion I aim to highlight the current tendency of influx of the external information into the country. I do not claim that these shifts directly happened because of Shins activities, however, it is also true that he played the most considerable role in opening the cultural and social gates of the countries from the mid-1980s. The following outlines draw up reasonable perspectives and scenarios on the direction where the new North Korean film industry heads to, and what kind of new trends could be expected at the audiovisual cultural field of North Korea. This section is targeted to give possible answers on how the new film trend and atmosphere can affect on the North Korean social changes and how foreign films can be part of the new North Korean cultural values. The main connection points between Shins influence and hallyu could be that the bright images and fast cuts of these movies have caused similar cinematic and social effects in North Korean society during the 1980s and the nowadays. As previously told, the cultural life -including the film industry- turned back to its hard line narratives by giving up the relatively solid relaxation and opening period of the 1980s. The reason was to restrict the socialist morals and to motivate people in the most desperate years. The leadership got the messages from the collapse of the majority of the socialist states that it could also happen to North Korea, thus, even a small piece of freedom could be critical for the regimes position. However, people have reacted to the economic and socio-cultural tightens in their own way. The relationship of the state and the people has changed hugely since that time. People started to notice the real information and became aware of having betrayed by the state. North Koreans wanted to have fun and relax by turning to the more and more popular cultural productions of South Korea. Moreover, according to many sources and defector interviews, watching South Korean dramas has been the biggest reason and influential factor for defecting even nowadays. The appearance of hallyu speeded up these internal socio-cultural changes in the same way like Shins movies did. The popularity of Korean cultural products, including mainly K-pop music, TV dramas and films, became unstoppable worldwide. The process of flowing external information into the DPRK has generated a mini TV-revolution that started to undermine the state control since the majority of North Koreans could receive evidence of the camouflage of the state media. From then on, the citizens did not only mistrust the images and messages of their domestic news and movies, but they visibly started to ignore consuming them. I would recall here the words of defectors on Shin Sang-oks movies when they stressed that these movies opened their eyes, likewise hallyu for younger generations. Moreover, hallyu promotes celebrity cult, like Shins movies created the cradle for it. Hallyu became so influential and powerful that some countries, including China and Japan, worrying of their cultural sovereignties being attacked. The significant cinematic influence of Shin and worry from him depict also common links with hallyu. The presence and popularity of South Korean influence is a considerable phenomenon in the North Korean society that transforms the main doctrines and standards of the North Korean cultural life. Like Shin began to change the beauty image in the DPRK, a new male image has been presented by South Korean dramas, movies and songs. Hallyu has also made significant effects on North Korean economy, namely the flourishing of the black market. Despite the high risks, there are merchants who have been specialized only in Korean Wave-productions and people are willing to buy them at much higher price. Some defectors told me that even if they got caught by hiding illegal VCDs and DVDs in their houses, after questioning the sources of these products, along with some minor beatings and tortures at the police station, most of them were released by bribing the authorities. These cases show that corruption, in relation with high demand of illegal products of black market, and hallyu are closely connected to each other. The illicit ticket scalping caused by Shin movies- also show similar social and economic effects. In conclusion, hallyu has been shaping social and cultural elements, like social and private behaviour, the manners, the way of speech, the way of thinking and the fashion of North Korea. Obviously, we can find several similarities between social effects of hallyu and Shins movies in 1980s. Nevertheless, the ration of the effects cannot be comparable due to the limited active years of Shin Sang-ok in North Korea. On the other side, hallyu has been part of the everyday of North Korean for more than decades. 6.2. Final Remark Even that the statement of Krinitsky on apolitical cinema is quite controversial, the case of Shin-movies has been drenched by politics on both sides of Korea. Moreover, his life testifies the fate and tragic events of the whole peninsula. He was born in the North but mainly and worked in South, from where he was exiled by conflicting with the government. Then he continued his work after a five-year torture and harassment- in the North, where he could gain even bigger successes and praises both from the audience and the leadership. By that time, he was the only film director who was spoiled and hatred by the different dictators of the same peninsula. After some bypass in the United States, he went home to South, where he was forgiven by the audience and the new government. Furthermore, he was the first Korean to be a jury member of Cannes International Film Festival in France in 1994. Notwithstanding, he also felt that world has changed in South Korea. The big return could never happen. Even though he could not get back his golden years, I assume that he found peace and calm in himself. People started to go to cinema not for a compulsory education but for fun. There were fights for the seats and full houses on screenings. People went to see the same movies for tenth and twentieth times. North Koreans wanted to work in cinemas just for re-watching Shins movies, students started to put posters in their rooms about main heroes of Shins movies next to the compulsory Kim Il Sung-Kim Jong Il portraits. Furthermore, the audience received filtered eyes by his movies and was able to evaluate which films were interesting and which were not. The homogeneity was changed by heterogeneity, as one defector claimed we had new eyes., opening a door to cinematic cosmopolitanism. Shin Sang-ok could entertain the audience in the South, and he was able prove the same in the North. Furthermore, he could even break through the regimes strict and rigid social and ideological barriers under its tacit permission. Shins first film images, like first credit-list (An Emissary of No Return), first screen kiss (Miles Along the Railway), the first revelation of love along with the first appearance of ticket-scalping (Love, Love, My Love) show his pioneer work in the North Korean cinematic atmosphere. The previous major trends and tone were refreshed by the new contents of Shin-movies that gave the audience joy, interpersonal love, well-directed action scenes, real blood, and fantasy. In addition, Shins timing for entering the North Korean cinematic scene happened at the best time as the 1980s secured a relative openness for a moderate social and cultural change, including the influx of foreign cultural capital. Although he could not bring mass popular culture to North Korea (in Western terms) so he could not become the North Koreas Mikhail Gorbachev. Still, the event of his abduction has transformed the DPRK cinema since he helped to develop the industry, which exceeded the bounds of the existing cultural-ideological machine. Originally Kim Jong Il wanted to kidnap Shin and Choi to promote his regime internationally. Probably Kim Jong Il did not expect the massive fanatism of domestic population towards Shin-movies. Moreover, the movies generated general curiosity among the citizens about the outside world. It has caused a domino effect, which escalated during the most difficult years of the regime, the Arduous March. As the previous section aimed to highlight, the influences of Shin played important roles in spread of hallyu. Subsequently, they both shaped not only the image of the North Korean television dramas and movies but also the whole society. The entertainment side of cinema was strengthened by Shin Sang-ok by installing more enjoyment factors and less political dogmas. Shin was also heterogeneous related to genres and themes (moving among some obvious limitations) since he adapted three folktales in three different forms musical (Love, Love, My Love), fantasy (The Tale of Shim Cheong) and monster movie (Pulgasari), enlightenment movie (Breakwater), Manchurian dramas with extreme tragic and shocking images (Runaway and Salt) and a historical epic (An Emissary of No Return). Due to the merits of Shin-tendency, the outsiders could receive more objective, clearer and more human image of the DPRK and the North Korean people. His movies were really like movies that brought love and energy to an otherwise dry and sterile cinema. Even though Shins movies were drops in the ocean, still, drop by drop film changes can form the whole system. As the old Asian saying claims dripping water penetrates/hollows out the stone. For the future of North Korean cinema policy, Kim Jong Un might consider cinema a crucial part in cultural fields, besides the significant expansion of television industry. Furthermore, he might have chances to involve more external players into the process, through inter-Korean film projects and international co-productions with Western countries. Appendix I. Interview with Film Director and Producer Shin Jeong-kyun The interview with film director and producer Shin Jeong-kyun, one of the sons of Shin Sang-ok, was made on 23 November 2016 in Seoul. Q. Could Shin Sang-ok smuggle and bring all his North Korean directed movies at the time of his escape in Vienna in 1986 SJ. When my father escaped from North Korea, he packed all his films, stills and other materials in North Korea but he did not take them at that time. My fathers friend who lived in the United States- received the films when he could meet my father in Eastern Europe. It took about a year. Q. Nowadays where are these movies available SJ. One can watch my fathers North Korean movies in Korean Film Archive. No other public or commercial screenings are possible as officially every North Korean cultural products including my fathers movies- are considered illegal products in South Korea due to the Security Law. Q. So it means that some of his North Korean movies have never ever been screened in South Korea, except from film festivals. SJ. Yes, that is correct, at the 2000 edition of Busan International Film Festival. Q. The film Pulgasari (1985) became shortly a cult film in Japan and many Western countries. Why do you think this movie is your fathers most recognizable North Korean movie for Western eyes SJ. The special effects team of Pulgasari was Japanese and when the movie became popular in Japan, indeed. My father wanted to make an English version, thus, he made the Western version of Pulgasari in Hollywood, titled Galgameth (1996). But since this version was a low-budget movie, the film did not receive as big success and fame as the original Pulgasari. Q. Was your father satisfied with the international success of the movie SJ. I do not think he was happy with that but his main point was to make movies. When he was in North Korea, Kim Jong Il gave him a lot of money in order to make films so he was happy because he could make movies but not exactly because one or two specific movies. Q. So you mean that your father was proud all his movies, regardless that some of them were directed and produced in the DPRK. Is that correct SJ. Not like that. As there is no freedom in North Korea, including freedom of arts, a filmmaker cannot choose freely the topics. On the contrary, South Korea could and can provide much wider freedom for artists so the topics and contents have been much more colorful in the South. Even if my father did not have to worry about money or the conditions, including technical equipments, in North Korea, he could not feel that much artistic freedom comparing to the South. Q. What was the reaction of South Korea on your fathers escape from North Korea in 1986 SJ. Some people from South Korean government claimed that my father escaped to North Korea by himself and not abducted. Thus, my father did not want to go to South Korea right away after his defection from the North. The South Korean government proposed my father several times to come back to the South. However, he insisted on staying in the United States because South Korea was not a completely free country at that time but it was more a military state. He came to South Korea after a few years of his escape. When he escaped from the North, he just brought a watch he received from Kim Jong Il, a badge of Kim Il Sung and a pen but they were taken away. Q. Have ever the South Korean authorities apologized from your family, especially from your mother until now SJ. They have never said sorry or apologized in any form. Q. I am curious about it because the South Korean audience could think of your parents as respected film celebrity couple, even after the North Korean period. However, South Korean authorities considered their case differently. SJ. Indeed, President Park Chung-hee and his wife, Yuk Young-soo, the Korean First Lady, adored my parents. Their personal relation became colder when my father found a new girlfriend and had to divorce from my mother as the new girlfriend got pregnant. Additionally, most of the Korean filmmakers did not like my father because he owned the biggest film company of Korea. Because of the jealousy, the filmmakers sent a letter to Park Chung-hee in which my father was reviled. From then on, the President also lost the trust in my father, he divorced and his company went bankrupt so all bad things happened at the same time. Q. Who allowed the screening of Pulgasari in South Korea in 2000 SJ. A film import company contacted the North Korean Export and Import Company, that had the copyrights, and Pulgasari was sold to this partner. Q. What was your fathers reaction after the South Korean screening of Pulgasari SJ. My father was so angry when he knew that Pulgasari was screened in South Korea. So-so angry about that Q. Do you have any information or related material about Breakwater (1985) Because this is the movie that was rarely released in North Korea and the related materials and references are also quite limited. SJ. Actually my father has not told me anything about Breakwater so I also do not have relevant information on this movie. Q. Are you allowed and planning of screening your fathers North Korean movies Because most of his movies do not contain direct political contents, for example The Tale of Shim Cheong (1985), so it would be interesting to show these movies to a wider audience. SJ. Honestly, this is a very difficult case as these movies are not in the property rights of my family any more. North Korea does not allow to screen these movies anywhere. When my father escaped from North Korea, the Shin Films Company was liquidated. The property rights of Shin Films were transferred to another North Korean Film Company. So if I wished to release these films, I might be chased or even killed by North Korean agents. Q. Even nowadays SJ. Oh, yes We only have rights for screening only in South Korea in special cases as my father gave these movies to Korean Film Archive. But it does not expand to other countries. Q. However, screening these movies is difficult also in South Korea because of the National Security Law, right SJ. That is correct. Exceptions can be taken only in very special cases like in retrospective screening of a Korean film festival but it has not happened many times. Q. Paul Fischer wrote in his book, A Kim Jong Il Production, that your father stole a Mercedes Benz when he first tried to escape from the North. Fischer went into much detail on that, made it a really gripping story, based on your fathers memoirs. On the other hand, you claim in the documentary The Lovers and the Despot that your father stole a bicycle for the same escape attempt. Who is correct SJ. My father stole a Benz, indeed. But he had to change the vehicles. Thus, sometime he drove the Benz, then he continued his way by bicycle and sometimes on foot. Q. What was your fathers impression on Kim Jong Ils personality SJ. My father hated him as he kidnapped my father. At the same time, he claimed that Kim Jong Il was not as crazy, hedonistic and demonic figure as the South Korean media suggested. This image was based on rumors of the Western media. He was a bright, smart and culturally educated person who kept his people in a prison-state. Q. Kim Jong Il and your parents believed and trust each other SJ. My parents did not believe and trust him at all, mainly because of the abduction and imprisonment. Also Kim Jong Il did not trust my parents a hundred percent as he kidnapped them in order to make films and make North Korean cinema popular on international stage. There were always five or six personal guards around my parents who watched their every step. The guards were especially cautious when my parents travelled to Eastern Europe. Q. When your father could meet and work with North Korean filmmakers, what kind of influence did he receive from the North Korean film industry and atmosphere SJ. The important issue is that the South Korean movie directors always want to create something new with their movies, thinking about depicting new ideas. On the contrary, my father said about North Korean film directors They are not directors, they are just workers. Workers who just followed instructions and obeyed rules of Kim Jong Il. North Korean film directors could not attempt any new ideas because of two reasons. The first is the already mentioned obedience towards the high level commands. The second is that these filmmakers could gain only limited knowledge and experience on different style of movie making and creating new ideas. North Korean directors do not have passion. Q. What about the influence of Kim Il Sung on your father SJ. Kim Jong Il just introduced him to my father but they did not really meet so often. My father did not say anything about Kim Il Sung. Q. What do you think about the controversial theories of your fathers way North Korea Some people still claim that he was not kidnapped but he went there by himself to make movies. SJ. As I told you, at that time (in the late 1970s) my father had a difficult life period, including the bankruptcy of Shin Films Company, the divorce, and the bad relationship with the government. Therefore, many people could assume that he went to North by himself to make movies there. Q. But this theory has changed by nowadays, right SJ. Even if the defecting theory has lost its popularity, still, a few people think that my father went to North Korea by himself. Q. There is a controversy in the fact that Kim Jong Il liked Western -especially Hollywood- films. On the contrary, the contents and atmosphere of North Korean films were rather schematic, political-based and much less creative than Kim Jong Ils own personal taste. SJ. Indeed, because Kim Jong Il did not allow the directors to have creativity and freedom in their movie making process so they simply could not create new style of movies. Kim Jong Il complained to my father on North Korean filmmakers I do not know why the North Korean filmmakers cannot make good movies Because the North Korean filmmakers were not allowed to have open eyes to the world. Q. What do you think of re-unification SJ. The case of North Korea and South Korea is not like the case of East- and West-Germany in the late 1980s. Thus, the unification in the German way cannot be carried out. Besides, Kim Jong Un is too young right now with limited leadership experience. Honestly, I do not know how it can be carried out. Q. How do you see the evolution of your parents relationship SJ. Even though that my fathers new girlfriend got pregnant, my mother did not think of divorce. However, after the second child was born by this new girlfriend, my mother wanted to divorce. After a few years, my mother went to live in Hong Kong. At that time my father told me that he had to go to Hong Kong in order to find my mother. So my father went to Hong Kong and also to United States in order to make movies. However, his passport expired so he had to come back to Hong Kong. At that time, South Korean government called him to return to Seoul but he suddenly disappeared in Hong Kong. So the re-united new marriage happened in North Korea, even though they did not have proper wedding in North Korea. They re-married after they escaped from North in a catholic church in the United States. Q. What was the most shocking story or trauma that your father experienced in North Korea SJ. Definitely the prison years in North Korea that last for four-five years, something like that. Even some North Koreans said that my father was sentenced in the best prison of North Korea, my father was tortured so much that he once said to me Even if I was re-born, I do not want to think of the prison years. After the long-year sufferings, he promised Kim Jong Il to make good movies for him. My father just wanted to be out of the prison. Later Kim Jong Il apologized from my father because of the prison years. Q. If I know it well, your father got even sick in the prison. SJ. Yes, the prison doctor gave him injection several times but my father felt even sicker because of the dirty hypodermic needles. Q. When and why did your father decide to become a film director SJ. My father studied drawing in Japan when he was young. When he got back to Korea, he received his first job at film industry. Q. What was your fathers most favorite movie for himself SJ. My father did not like his own movies because he spent many years in North Korean prison, where he could re-think all of his previously made movies and he was not fully satisfied with them. Only three movies remained in his memories as the most unforgettable productions, namely The Mother and the Guest (1958), Seong Chunhyang (1961) and The Red Muffler (1964). Q. What is your opinion about the Ninja-sequels shot in the United States SJ. He just made these movies to make money. Because my father preferred movies that required a lot of money. His last film dream was an epic movie about Genghis Khan. He made the low-budget Ninja-movies, which became successful in the States, in order to gain money for Genghis Khan. Q. Who was your fathers biggest role model in global cinematic historySJ. My father especially liked Charlie Chaplin because Chaplin directed, acted, wrote and composed the music for his films. Q. What about Orson Welles Because Shin Sang-ok has been called as Korean Orson Welles. SJ. I know, I know but my father was talented mainly in directing, cinematography and partly in editing. He was not as multifunctional as Chaplin. That is why my father liked him so much. Q. How did you decide to become a film director SJ. During my childhood, I always went for shooting along with my father and that world just amazed me. My fathers words of shoot, ready, action attracted me a lot. I could look up onto my father when he shot movies, as he was handsome and he was listened by everybody. So I wanted to be like my father Q. What is your favorite movie in general And what is your favorite one from your father SJ. The Godfather (1972) and Once Upon Time in America (1984). Among my fathers movies, I liked the most, Prince Yongsan (1961). Q. Where is the script of Genghis Khan available SJ. It is in my mothers house. Q. Can somebody buy the rights for the script in order to make movie Genghis Khan SJ. I am not sure because I have no relevant information on the relationship and the contract of the English scriptwriter and my father. In addition, my father was not satisfied with the quality of the script. Therefore, he continuously re-wrote it. Q. How is your mothers health SJ. She is fine but very old as she is now 90 years old. Q. Does she tell sometimes nostalgic stories about memorable film shootings or your father SJ. Rarely. Q. What is the recent work you are planning to shoot these days SJ. I would like to make a movie of my parents life, especially my moms stories. Because they have as adventurous life stories as real movie stories. Especially my moms life story would be suitable for a movie since she was kidnapped to North Korea from where she could escape. She married to a Korean cinematographer then she divorced because she met my father then divorced again, then re-married. Also, she could not have baby as my sister and me were adopted. So my moms story would be a fantastic movie story as it contains laugh, cry, happy, adventure, action, tragedy, trauma, success, desperate, pain and love. Q. Does it mean that it can be expected to be shot soon SJ. The problem of the Korean film market that it is really difficult to receive financial sponsor nowadays. Because only a few people own the Korean film market in their hands who give money for only the most famous and popular film directors and producers. Filmmakers who are below this line, there is a small chance to receive financial support. Q. How did you meet of the young filmmakers of The Lovers and The Despot (2016) SJ. They just visited me in South Korea but first we thought with my mom that these directors are too young to make this kind of movie so my mom first refused the offer. However, they insisted on making this movie so after then we agreed. Q. What do you think of the movie Are you satisfied with it SJ. It is good, yes. However, according to my opinion, there are too many parts, which detail the North Korean dictatorship rather than my parents story. I found the North Korean parts a little bit boring. (smiling) Appendix II. Interview Questions for Defectors The questions focus on the movie habits of North Koreans and the successes of Shins North Korean-made movies. Baek, Jieun. North Koreas Hidden Revolution How the Information Underground Is Transforming a Closed Society. New Haven Yale University Press, 2016. Bartas, Magnus, and Fredrik Ekman. All Monsters Must Die An Excursion to North Korea. Toronto House of Anansi Press, 2015. Bazin, Andre. What is Cinema Essays. (Volume 1.) Translated by Hugh Gray. Berkeley University of California Press, 1971. Bazin, Andre. What is Cinema Essays. (Volume 2.) Translated by Hugh Gray. Berkeley University of California Press, 1971. Lahiri, Jhumpa.In Other Words. 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Edwards, Matthew. Film out Bounds Essays and Interviews on Non-Mainstream Cinema Worldwide. Jefferson McFarland Books, 2007. Fischer, Paul. A Kim Jong Il Production Kidnap. Torture. MurderMaking Movies North Korean style. London Penguin Books, 2015. Frank, Rdiger. Exploring North Korean Arts. Vienna Verlag fr Moderne Kunst, 2012. Gabroussenko, Tatiana. Soldiers on the Cultural Front. Honolulu University of Hawaii Press, 2010. Gateward, Frances. Seoul Searching Culture and Identity in Contemporary Korean Cinema. New York State University of New York Press 2007. Hassig, Ralph, and Kongdan Oh. The Hidden People of North Korea Everyday Life in the Hermit Kingdom. Lanham Rowman Littlefield Publishers, 2009. Haynes, John. New Soviet Man Gender and masculinity in Stalinist Soviet cinema. Manchester Manchester University Press, 2003. Heins, Laura. Nazi Film Melodrama. Champaign University of Illinois Press, 2013. Jackson, Andrew David, and Colette Balmain. Korean Screen Cultures Interrogating Cinema, TV, Music and Online Games. Bern Peter Lang Publishers, 2016. Jeong, Kelly Y. Crisis of Gender and the Nation in Korean Literature and Cinema Modernity Arrives Again. New York Lexington Books, 2010. Kenz, Pter. Cinema and Soviet Society, 1917-1953. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1992. Kenz, Pter. The Birth of the Propaganda State Soviet Methods of Mass Mobilization, 1917-1929. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1985. Keumsil, Kim Yoon and Bruce Williams. Two Lenses on the Korean Ethos Key Cultural Concepts and Their Appearance in Cinema. Jefferson McFarland Company, 2015. Kim, Jong Il. On Juche Literature. Pyongyang Foreign Language Publishing House, 1992. Kim, Jong Il. On the Art of Cinema. Pyongyang Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1973. (English translation,1989). Kim, Kyung Hyun. The Remasculinization of Korean Cinema. (Asia-Pacific Culture, Politics, and Society) Durham Duke University Press Books, 2004. Kim, Suk-young. DMZ crossing Performing Emotional Citizenship Along the Korean Border. New York Columbia University Press, 2014. Kim, Suk-young. Illusive Utopia. Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press, 2010. Kim, Sung Chull. North Korea under Kim Jong Il From Consolidation to Systemic Dissonance. Albany State University of New York Press, 2007. Kim, Suzy. Everyday Life in the North Korean Revolution, 19451950. Ithaca Cornell University Press, 2013. Kinnia, Yau Shuk-ting. East Asian Cinema and Cultural Heritage From China, Hong Kong, Taiwan to Japan and South Korea. Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. Korean Film Art. Pyongyang Korea Film Export Import Corporation, 2016. Kwon, Heonik, and Byung-ho Chung. North Korea Beyond Charismatic Politics. Lanham Rowman Litllefield Publishers, 2012. Lankov, Andrei. From Stalin to Kim Il Sung The Formation of North Korea 1945-1960. New Brunswick Rutgers University Press 2002. Lankov, Andrei. North of the DMZ Essays on Daily Life in North Korea. 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Understanding Film Marxist Perspectives. London Pluto Press, 2005. Wilson, Kristi M., and Laura E. Ruberto. Italian Neorealism and Global Cinema. (Contemporary Approaches to Film and Media Series), Detroit Wayne State University Press, 2007. Yecies, Brian, and Ae-gyun Shim. Koreas Occupied Cinemas, 1893-1948 The Untold History of the Film Industry. (Routledge Advances in Film Studies) Abingdon Routledge, 2013. Youngblood, Denise J. Movies for the Masses Popular Cinema and Soviet Society in the 1920s. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1992. Cho, Eunsun. The Stray Bullet and the Crisis of Korean Masculinity In South Korean Golden Age Melodrama Gender, Genre, and National Cinema, edited by Kathleen McHugh and Nancy Abelmann, 99-116. Detroit Wayne State University Press, 2005. Harry Ris, Peter. The Guest and My Mother. In The Cinema of Japan and Korea, edited by Justin Bowyer, 73-80. New York Wallflower Press, 2004. Jackson, Andrew David. DPRK Film, Order No. 27. and the Acousmatic Voice. In Korean Screen Cultures Interrogating Cinema, TV, Music and Online Games, edited by Andrew David Jackson and Colette Balmain, 161-176. Bern Peter Lang Publishers, 2016. Kim, Immanuel. Comedy and Ideology in My Familys Problem. In Korean Screen Cultures Interrogating Cinema, TV, Music and Online Games, edited by Andrew David Jackson and Colette Balmain, 143-159. Bern Peter Lang Publishers, 2015. Kim, Kyung Hyun. The Fractured Cinema of North Korea The Discourse of the Nation in Sea of Blood. In In Pursuit of Contemporary East Asian Culture, edited by Xiaobing Tang and Stephen Snyder, 86-106. New York Westview, 1996. Kwon, Heonik. North Koreas Theater State In Korean Studies Forum (Volume 4.), edited by Kim, Hyuk-rae Kim, Yonsei University Press, 2010. Lee, Hana. How are Historic Events Remembered North Korean War Films on the Inchon Landing Operation. 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Chunhyang at War Rediscovering Franco-North Korean Film Moranbong (1959). In Korean Screen Cultures Interrogating Cinema, TV, Music and Online Games, edited by Andrew David Jackson and Colette Balmain, 199-217. Bern Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016. Petrov, Leonid. Filmmaking on the Edge Shin Sang-Ok and Choi Eun-Hee in North Korea (19781986). In Stars in World Cinema, edited by Michelle Royer and Andrea Bandhauer, 143-155. London I.B.Tauris Co. Ltd., 2015. Standish, Isolde. Korean Cinema and New Realism Text and Context. In Colonialism and Nationalism in Asian Cinema, edited by Wimal Dissanayake, 65-89. Bloomington Indiana University Press, 1994. Szalontai, Balzs. Expulsion for a Mistranslated Poem The Diplomatic Aspects of North Korean Cultural Policies. In Dynamics of the Cold War in Asia Ideology, Identity, and Culture, edited by Vu Tuong and Wongsurawat Wasana, 145-164. New York Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Dissertations An, Jinsoo. Popular Reasoning of South Korean Melodrama Films (1953-1972). PhD dissertation, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), 2005. Chung, Steven. Sin Sang-ok and Postwar Korean Mass Culture. PhD dissertation, University of California Irvine, 2008. Kim, Suk-young. Revolutionizing the Family A Comparative Study on the Filmed Propaganda Performances of the Peoples Republic of China and the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (1966-1976). PhD dissertation, Northwestern University, 2005. Journal Articles Armstrong, Charles K. The Origins of North Korean Cinema Art and Propaganda in the Democratic Peoples Republic. Acta Koreana 5, no.1 (January 2002) 1-19. Armstrong, Charles K. Trends in the Study of North Korea. The Journal of Asian Studies 70, no. 2 (May 2011) 357-371. Beaven, Jake. Welcome to Panmunjeon Encounters with the North in the Contemporary South Korean Cinema. New Cinemas Journal of Contemporary Film 8, no.1 (September 2010) 45-57. E. Clippinger, Morgan. Kim Chong-il in the North Korean Mass Media A Study of Semi-Esoteric Communication. Asian Survey 21, no. 3 (March 1981) 289-309. Frank, Rdiger. The 7th Party Congress in North Korea An Analysis of Kim Jong Uns Report. The Asia-Pacific Journal 14 (14), no. 8. (July 2016) 1-22. Gabroussenko, Tatiana. North Korean Rural Fiction from the Late 1990s to the Mid-2000s Permanence and Change. Korean Studies 33. (2009) 69-100. Project MUSE. Kim, Immanuel. Problems with Institutionalizing the April 15 Literary Production Unit. Korea Journal 56, no. 1. (Spring 2016) 140-164. Lee, Hyangjin. Conflicting Working Class Identities in North Korean Cinema. Korea Journal 40, no. 3 (Autumn 2000) 237-254. Lee, Hyangjin. Cinema and Construction of Nationhood in Contemporary Korea. International Journal of Korean Unification Studies 10, no. 1 (July 2001) 143-168. Marenko, Dima. North Koreans at the Movies Cinema of Fits and Starts and the Rise of Chameleon Spectatorship. Journal of Japanese and Korean Cinema 8, no. 1 (2016) 25-44. Myers, Brian. The Watershed that wasnt Re-evaluating Kim Il Sungs Juche Speech of 1955. Acta Koreana 9, no. 1 (January 2006) 89-115. Nam, Sung-wook. Chronic Food Shortages and the Collective Farm System in North Korea. Journal of East Asian Studies 7, (2007) 93123. Park, Nohchool. The Three Faces of Peoples Cinema A Critical Review of the South Korean Independent Cinema Movement in the 1980s. Acta Koreana 12, no. 2 (2009) 21-53. Park, Myung-jin. Motion Pictures in North Korea. Korea Journal (Seoul) 31, no. 3 (Autumn 1991) 95-103. Gabroussenko, Tatiana. Kim Jong Il The Man Who Brought Love to North Koreas Silver. (2 August 2016) HYPERLINK https//www.nknews.org/2016/08/kim-jong-il-the-man-who-brought-love-to-north-koreas-silver-screen/c1499061642546https//www.nknews.org/2016/08/kim-jong-il-the-man-who-brought-love-to-north-koreas-silver-screen/c1499061642546 Accessed on 10th September 2016. Thomson, Mike. Kidnapped by North Korea, BBC News, 5 March, 2003, HYPERLINK http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/2821221.stmhttp//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/2821221.stm Accessed on 5th December 2016. Yoo, Sungkwan (Korean Film Archive). Koreas Classical Chunhyangjeon (The Story of Chunhyang) Made into Film. Note that there is no universal agreement on Japanese influence on North Korean cinema. As Song Nak-won claims that North Korean cinema was not connected in any way with the Japanese period, and rather () it was foreign Soviet influence. In Steven Chung, Split Screen Korea Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema (London University of Minnesota Press, 2014), 168. However, I argue with this statement as anti-Japanese contents were returning themes of the North Korean movies, starting from the first feature movie, My Home Village (1949), through display of black-suited evil ninjas in Hong Kil Dong (1986) and the flashbacks of melodramas like The Country I Saw (1988) until the flight battle scenes of the latest TV-series A Bulletproof Wall (2015), just to name a few. Moreover, I will provide arguments on Japanese origins of depiction of nature. Thus, I claim that Japanese film aesthetic elements were included in North Korean cinema, likewise Japanese content-based parts are inseparable elements. Sonia Ryang, Reading North Korea An Ethnological Inquiry (Cambridge Harvard University Press, 2012), 129. Charles K. Armstrong, Trends in the Study of North Korea, The Journal of Asian Studies 70, no. 2 (May 2011) 369. Kim Yoon Keumsil and Bruce Williams, Two Lenses on the Korean Ethos Key Cultural Concepts and Their Appearance in Cinema, (Jefferson McFarland Company, 2015), 196. Steven Chung, Sin Sang-ok and Postwar Korean Mass Culture (PhD diss., University of California Irvine, 2008.), 67. Ibid, 71-72. These remarkable and useful manuscripts, namely Kim Kyung Hyuns The Remasculinization of Korean Cinema Chi-Yun Shin and Julian Stringers New Korean Cinema Nancy Abelmann and Kathleen McHughs South Korean Golden Age Melodrama, provided a more objective background for the final work. Young-il Lee and Young-chol Choe, The History of Korean Cinema (Seoul Jimoondang Publishing Company, 1988), 20. Ibid, 21. Ibid, 22. Ibid, 58. It was not a real movie but more a mixture of theatre and film, so-called kinodrama (theatrical play including with motion picture elements and piano play). In Hyangjin Lee, Contemporary Korean Cinema Identity, Culture and Politics (Manchester Manchester University Press, 2000), 19. Hyangjin Lee, Contemporary Korean Cinema Identity, Culture and Politics (Manchester Manchester University Press, 2000), 72. Eunsun Cho, The Stray Bullett and the Crisis of Korean Masculinity, in South Korean Golden Age Melodrama Gender, Genre, and National Cinema, ed. Kathleen McHugh and Nancy Abelmann (Detroit Wayne State University Press, 2005), 110. Sungkwan Yoo (Korean Film Archive), Koreas Classical Chunhyangjeon (The Story of Chunhyang) Made into Film, accessed December 13, 2016, HYPERLINK https//artsandculture.google.com/exhibit/wQwYHVsV https//artsandculture.google.com/exhibit/wQwYHVsV Ibid. Young-il Lee, The Complete History of Korean Cinema (Seoul Sodo, 2004), 98. Hyangjin Lee, State Cinema and Passive Revolution in North Korea, in Understanding Film Marxist Perspectives, ed. Mike Wayne (London Pluto Press, 2005), 197. Brian R. Myers, Han Surya and North Korean Literature The Failure of Socialist Realism in the DPRK (Ithaca Cornell University Press, 1994), 16-17. Hyangjin Lee, State Cinema and Passive Revolution in North Korea, in Understanding Film Marxist Perspectives, ed. Mike Wayne (London Pluto Press, 2005), 197. Hyangjin Lee, Contemporary Korean Cinema Identity, Culture and Politics (Manchester Manchester University Press, 2000), 28-29. Ibid. Brian R. Myers, Han Surya and North Korean Literature The Failure of Socialist Realism in the DPRK (Ithaca Cornell University Press, 1994), 50. Ibid. Ibid, 35. Hyangjin Lee, Contemporary Korean Cinema Identity, Culture and Politics (Manchester Manchester University Press, 2000), 29. Minjung means mass of the people that includes the democratization campaign of South Korea during the 1980s until 1992, aiming to break the rule of military dictatorship. Hyangjin Lee, State Cinema and Passive Revolution in North Korea, in Understanding Film Marxist Perspectives, ed. Mike Wayne (London Pluto Press, 2005), 201, n31 Hyangjin Lee, State Cinema and Passive Revolution in North Korea, in Understanding Film Marxist Perspectives, ed. Mike Wayne (London Pluto Press, 2005), 203. and in Jae-Cheon Lim, Leader Symbols and Personality Cult in North Korea The Leader State (Abingdon Routledge, 2015), 10. Jae-Cheon Lim, Kim Jong Ils Leadership of North Korea (Abingdon Routledge, 2009), 45. Andrei Lankov, From Stalin to Kim Il Sung The Formation of North Korea 1945-1960 (New Brunswick Rutgers University Press, 2002), 195. Lankov also bring the expression of grip of mature Stalinism borrowing it from Joseph Rotschild. in Andrei Lankov, From Stalin to Kim Il Sung The Formation of North Korea 1945-1960 (New Brunswick Rutgers University Press, 2002), 155. Key P. Yang and Chang-Boh Chee, North Korean Educational System, The China Quarterly, no. 14. (April-June 1963) 126. Pter Kenz, Cinema and Soviet Society, 1917-1953 (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1992), 157. Andy McSmith, Fear and the Muse Kept Watch The Russian Masters From Akhmatova and Pasternak to Shostakovich and Eisenstein Under Stalin (New York The New Press, 2015), 30. Donald Richie, Japanese Cinema Film Style and National Character (New York Anchor Books, 1971), 53. Ibid. Donald Richie, Japanese Cinema Film Style and National Character (New York Anchor Books, 1971), 12. Ricardo Martinez, Socialist Realism What Was It All About, accessed January 6, 2018. HYPERLINK https//www.widewalls.ch/socialist-realism-art/ https//www.widewalls.ch/socialist-realism-art/ (20 December 2015) Maya Turovskaya, The 1930s and 1940s Cinema in Context, in Stalinism and Soviet Cinema, ed. Richard Taylor and Derek Spring (Abingdon Routledge, 1993), 47. Ibid. The most often quoted remarkable North Korean movies in film scholarship are quite limited, mainly focusing on My Home Village (1949) and The Flower Girl (1972). This movie contains the famous set of the masculine female Brando on motorbike played by the popular Soviet actress, Marina Ladynina. John Haynes, New Soviet Man Gender and Masculinity in Stalinist Soviet Cinema (Manchester Manchester University Press, 2003) , 149. Korean Film Art (Pyongyang Korea Film Export Import Corporation, 2016), 5. Kim Yoon Keumsil and Bruce Williams, Two Lenses on the Korean Ethos Key Cultural Concepts and Their Appearance in Cinema, (Jefferson McFarland Company, 2015), 105. Suzy Kim, Everyday Life in the North Korean Revolution, 1945-1950 (Ithaca Cornell University Press, 2013), 38. Charles K. Armstrong, The North Korean Revolution, 19451950 (Ithaca Cornell University Press, Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University, 2004), 190. Balzs Szalontai, Kim Il Sung in the Khrushchev Era Soviet-DPRK Relations and the Roots of North Korean Despotism, 1953-1964 (Redwood City Stanford University Press, Cold War International History Project Series, 2006), 81. Ibid, 115. Ibid, 185. Bradley K. Martin, Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader North Korea and the Kim Dynasty (New York St. Martins Griffin, 2006), 327. Korean Film Art (Pyongyang Korea Film Export Import Corporation, 2016), 5. and in Art of the DPRK Promoting North Korean Film (Beijing Koryo Studio and Tours), 1. Andrei Lankov, North of the DMZ Essays on Daily Life in North Korea (Jefferson McFarland and Company, 2007), 62. Sung Chull Kim, North Korea under Kim Jong Il From Consolidation to Systemic Dissonance (Albany State University of New York Press, 2007), 39. Andrei Lankov, North of the DMZ Essays on Daily Life in North Korea (Jefferson McFarland and Company, 2007), 41. and in Barbara Demick, Nothing to Envy Ordinary Lives in North Korea (New York Spiegel Grau, 2010), 14. Hyangjin Lee, State Cinema and Passive Revolution in North Korea, in Understanding Film Marxist Perspectives, ed. Mike Wayne (London Pluto Press, 2005), 204. B.C. Koh, The Cult of Personality and the Succession Issue, in Journey to North Korea Personal Perceptions, ed. C.I Eugene Kim and B.C.Koh (Berkeley Institute of East Asian Studies University of California, Berkeley, 1983), 40 and in Jae-Cheon Lim, Leader Symbols and Personality Cult in North Korea The Leader State (Abingdon Routledge, 2015), 10. As Shin Sang-ok mentions in an interview at a South Korean film festival after defecting from the North that Kim Jong Il is very knowledgeable when it comes to film. He has a very good filmmakers eye. He advised me a lot on shooting and editing. () The trouble is that he cant distinguish between fiction and reality () I had to explain to him that most American films were fictional. in Matthew Edwards, Film out Bounds Essays and Interviews on Non-Mainstream Cinema Worldwide (Jefferson McFarland Company, 2007), 201. and in Magnus Bartas and Fredrik Ekman, All Monsters Must Die An Excursion to North Korea (Toronto House of Anansi Press Int., 2015), 207. Barbara Demick, Nothing to Envy Ordinary Lives in North Korea (New York Spiegel Grau, 2010), 14-15. Kim Yoon Keumsil and Bruce Williams, Two Lenses on the Korean Ethos Key Cultural Concepts and Their Appearance in Cinema (Jefferson McFarland Company, 2015), 105. Robert S. Boynton, The Invitation Only-Zone The Extraordinary Story of North Koreas Abduction Project, (London Atlantic Books, 2016), 66. Jong Il Kim, On the Art of Cinema (Pyongyang Foreign Language Publishing House, 1994), 2. in Mike Wayne, Understanding Film Marxist Perspectives (London Pluto Press, 2005), 194. Selected works of Kim Jong Il (Seoul Gyeongnam University, Far-East Research Institute, 1991), 166. in Mike Wayne, Understanding Film Marxist Perspectives (London Pluto Press, 2005), 194. Hyangjin Lee, State Cinema and Passive Revolution in North Korea, in Understanding Film Marxist Perspectives, ed. Mike Wayne (London Pluto Press, 2005), 194. B.C. Koh, The Cult of Personality and the Succession Issue, in Journey to North Korea Personal Perceptions, ed. C.I Eugene Kim and B.C.Koh (Berkeley Institute of East Asian Studies University of California, Berkeley, 1983), 143. Bruce Cumings, North Korea Another Country (New York The New Press, 2004), 107. Brian R. Myers, Juche Myth (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2015), 11. Ibid, 47. Ibid, 52. I would recall here Kim Il Sungs words on the adjust of the Soviet theory into Korean environment Marxism-Leninism is not a dogma, it is a guide to action and a creative theory. So only when it is applied creatively to suit the specific conditions of each country can it display its indestructible vitality. in Brian R. Myers, Juche Myth (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2015), 52. Ibid, 85. Steven Chung, Split Screen Shin Sang-ok in North Korea in North Korea Toward a Better Understanding, ed. Sonia Ryang, (Lanham Lexington Books, 2009), 88. Ibid. and in Steven Chung, Split Screen Korea Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema (London University of Minnesota Press, 2014), 170. Paul Fischer, A Kim Jong Il Production Kidnap. Torture. MurderMaking Movies North Korean style (London Penguin Books, 2015), 51. Ibid. Johannes Schnherr, North Korean Cinema A History (Jefferson McFarland Company, 2012), 46. Hyangjin Lee, Contemporary Korean Cinema Identity, Culture and Politics (Manchester Manchester University Press, 2000), 31. 1., The Director Is the Commander of the Creative Group 2., One Must Aim High In Creation 3., Emotions Should Be Well Defined in Directing 4., Acting Depends on the Director 5., Exacting Demands Should Be Made in Filming and Art Design 6., The Best Use Should Be Made of Music and Sound 7., The Secret of Directing lies in Editing 8., The Assistant Director Is a Creative Worker in Jong Il Kim, On the Art of Cinema (Pyongyang Foreign Language Publishing House, 1973., English translation 1989), pp. 160-239. Manswoo Lee, How North Korea Sees Itself in Journey to North Korea Personal Perceptions, eds. C.I Eugene Kim and B.C.Koh (Berkeley Institute of East Asian Studies University of California, Berkeley, 1983), 130. Ibid, 131. Steven Chung, Split Screen Korea Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema (London University of Minnesota Press, 2014), 170. Ibid. The Propaganda Game (2015), directed by Alvaro Longoria . (43m06s) HYPERLINK https//www.youtube.com/watchvfZTymUzcpIghttps//www.youtube.com/watchvfZTymUzcpIg Accessed on 8 December 2017. Words of Kim Il Sung in Kim, Jong Il On the Art of Cinema 1973, electronic version, pp. 383. HYPERLINK http//blog.coyoteproductions.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/On-the-Art-of-the-Cinema-Kim-Jong-Il.pdfhttp//blog.coyoteproductions.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/On-the-Art-of-the-Cinema-Kim-Jong-Il.pdf Accessed on 13 December 2017 and in Kim Jong Il-North Koreas Dear Leader, pp. 79. HYPERLINK https//www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1876/part-played-labour/index.htm https//www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1876/part-played-labour/index.htm Accessed on 18 January 2018. This is the core of the cultural work in peoples life, based on subjective realism. Lee, Hyangjin State Cinema and Passive Revolution in North Korea in Wayne, Mike Understanding Film Marxist Perspectives Pluto Press, 2005., pp. 202. and in Kim, Jong Il On the Art of Cinema Pyongyang Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1973. (English translation,1989), pp. 291. and in Keumsil, Kim Yoon Williams, Bruce Two Lenses on the Korean Ethos Key Cultural Concepts and Their Appearance in Cinema McFarland Company 2015., pp. 106. Myers, Brian R. Han Sorya and North Korean Literature The Failure of Socialist Realism in the DPRK East Asia Program, Cornell University, New York, 1994., pp. 154. Frank, Rdiger Exploring North Korean Arts Verlag fr moderne Kunst, 2012., pp. 108. Szalontai, Balzs Expulsion for a Mistranslated Poem The Diplomatic Aspects of North Korean Cultural Policies In Tuong, Vu Wasana, Wongsurawat. (eds) Dynamics of the Cold War in Asia Ideology, Identity, and Culture (New York Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), pp. 153. Ryang, Sonia Reading North Korea An Ethnological Inquiry Harvard University Press, 2012., pp. 33. He was one of the most popular scriptwriters at the time. He wrote for instance the script of The Fate of Kumhui and Eunhui (1974). Kim Sung-gu became famous of the Problem-sequels during the 1970s and turned to historical action movies like Hong Kil-dong (1987) or Rim Kkok-jong (1987-89) and romantic comedies like My Favourite Young Man (1989). Ibid. In real, he was a mistress of Kim Jong Il but the lady cheated him, which led to her infamous execution. Gabroussenko Tatiana Soldiers on the Cultural Front University of Hawaii Press, 2010., pp. 140. Lee, Hyangjin Chunhyang, Marketing an Old Tradition in New Korean Cinema in Shin, Chi-Yun Stringer, Julian New Korean Cinema New York University Press 2005., pp. 63. Ibid, 69. Kim Jong Il The man who brought love to North Koreas silver by Tatiana Gabroussenko, 2 August 2016. HYPERLINK https//www.nknews.org/2016/08/kim-jong-il-the-man-who-brought-love-to-north-koreas-silver-screen/c1499061642546https//www.nknews.org/2016/08/kim-jong-il-the-man-who-brought-love-to-north-koreas-silver-screen/c1499061642546 Accessed on 3 November 2017. Szalontai, Balzs. Expulsion for a Mistranslated Poem The Diplomatic Aspects of North Korean Cultural Policies In Tuong, Vu Wasana, Wongsurawat. (eds) Dynamics of the Cold War in Asia Ideology, Identity, and Culture (New York Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), pp. 161. Korean Film Art (1985) published by Korean Film Export and Import Corporation in Keumsil, Kim Yoon Williams, Bruce Two Lenses on the Korean Ethos Key Cultural Concepts and Their Appearance in Cinema McFarland Company 2015., pp. 196. Szalontai, Balzs Expulsion for a Mistranslated Poem The Diplomatic Aspects of North Korean Cultural Policies In Tuong, Vu Wasana, Wongsurawat. (eds) Dynamics of the Cold War in Asia Ideology, Identity, and Culture (New York Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), pp. 161. Demick, Barbara Nothing to Envy Spiegel Grau 2010., pp.16. Kim, Suk-young Illusive Utopia University of Michigan Press, 2010., pp.228. Due to a defectors personal story in Baeks book, the hairstyle imitation to South Korean celebrities have increased by the 2000s when boys started to cut their hairs like they saw it in South Korean movies. In Baek, Jieun North Koreas Hidden Revolution How the Information Underground Is Transforming a Closed Society Yale University Press, 2016., pp. 204. Kim, Suk-young Illusive Utopia University of Michigan Press, 2010., pp.225. Although the Spring blows, it never sends for the fragrance to the outside in Lee, Hyangjin Contemporary Korean cinema Identity, culture and politics Manchester University Press 2000., pp.85. Ryang, Sonia Reading North Korea An Ethnological Inquiry Harvard University Press, 2012., pp. 61. Ryang, Sonia Reading North Korea An Ethnological Inquiry Harvard University Press, 2012., pp. 80-81. Ryang, Sonia Reading North Korea An Ethnological Inquiry Harvard University Press, 2012., pp. 82. Superimposition is when two or more images are placed over each other in the frame. Richie, Donald. Japanese Cinema Film Style and National Character. New York Anchor Books, 1971., p.14. Ibid. 15. The Sun usually symbolizes Kim Il Sung in North Korean movies, literature, music or paintings. In Lim, Jae-Cheon Leader Symbols and Personality Cult in North Korea The Leader State Routledge 2015. pp. 88-89. Chung, Steven Split Screen Korea – Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema University of Minnesota Press, London, 2014., pp.193. Tudor, Daniel Pearson, James North Korea Confidential Private Markets, Fashion Trends, Prison Camp, Dissenters and Defectors Tuttle Publishing, 2015, pp. 54. Baek, Jieun North Koreas Hidden Revolution How the Information Underground Is Transforming a Closed Society Yale University Press, 2016., pp. 45. North Korea using Australian camera for 4K movies, footage reveals by Leo Byrne on November 17th, 2016 HYPERLINK https//www.nknews.org/2016/11/north-korea-using-australian-camera-for-4k-movies-footage-reveals/https//www.nknews.org/2016/11/north-korea-using-australian-camera-for-4k-movies-footage-reveals/ Accessed on 10 December 2017. Bonner, Nicholas Made in North Korea Graphics From Everyday Life in the DPRK Phaidon Press Limited, 2017., pp. 98. Tudor, Daniel Pearson, James North Korea Confidential Private Markets, Fashion Trends, Prison Camp, Dissenters and Defectors Tuttle Publishing, 2015., pp. 54. and based on personal interviews. Ibid, 166. Jeong, Kelly Y. Crisis of Gender and the Nation in Korean Literature and Cinema Modernity Arrives Again Lexington Books 2010., pp. 88. Bazin, Andre What is Cinema Volume 1. Essays selected and translated by Hugh Gray University of California Press Ltd., 1967., pp.37. Bazin, Andre What is Cinema Volume 2. Essays selected and translated by Hugh Gray University of California Press Ltd., 1971., pp. 24. Bondanella, PeterLa Strada,Rutgers Films in Print Series. Rutgers University Press 1987., pp. 3-4. Kim Yoon, Keumsil Williams, Bruce Two Lenses on the Korean Ethos – Key Cultural Concepts and Their Appearance in Cinema, McFarland Company, 2015., pp. 101. Kim, Suk-young DMZ crossing performing emotional citizenship along the Korean border Columbia University Press, 2014., pp. 46. Berry, Chris Scream and Scream Again in Gateward, Frances (ed.) Seoul Searching Culture and Identity in Contemporary Korean Cinema State University of New York Press pp. 99-113. Kim, Suk-young DMZ crossing performing emotional citizenship along the Korean border Columbia University Press, 2014., pp. 60. Fischer, Paul A Kim Jong Il Production Kidnap, Torture, MurderMaking Movies North Korean-style Penguin Books 2015., pp. 21. Chung, Steven Split Screen Korea Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema University of Minnesota Press, London, 2014., pp. 50 Harry Ris, Peter The Guest and My Mother in Bowyer, Justin The Cinema of Japan and Korea Wallflower Press, 2004., pp. 75. Note that this work officially does not belong to neo-realist cinema as the start of Italian neo-realism is commonly dated to 1943 (Ossessione). The screenplay was written by the Japanese writer, Motosada Nishikame, and distributed in Japan by the Towa Company. In Lee, Young-il and Choe Young-chol The History of Korean Cinema Jimoondang Publishing Company, 1988. pp.74. Keumsil, Kim Yoon Williams, Bruce Two Lenses on the Korean Ethos Key Cultural Concepts and Their Appearance in Cinema McFarland Company 2015., pp. 101. This was the first film in which Shin worked as a production designer assistant. Chung, Steven Split Screen Korea-Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema University of Minnesota Press, London, 2014., pp. 7. Based on the interview with film director and producer Shin Jeong-kyun, the son of Shin Sang-ok. As Shin declared A director in the strictest sense must be a producer as well. A really good director must be his own writer and his own producer. Thats why I like Chaplin the best. He wrote, acted, directed, and even did the music himself I think we can Chaplin as the most perfect in the world. In Chung, Steven Sin Sang-ok and Postwar Korean Mass Culture, (Ph.D. thesis, UC Irvine, 2008.), pp. 107. Arrangement of sets and scenery. Chung, Steven Sin Sang-ok and Postwar Korean Mass Culture, (Ph.D. thesis, UC Irvine, 2008.), pp. 104-105. Lee, Sangjoon Martial Arts Craze in Korea in Yau Shuk-ting, Kinnia (ed.) East Asian Cinema and Cultural Heritage From China, Hong Kong, Taiwan to Japan and South Korea Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. pp. 190. Note that some other sources claim the bankruptcy of the company in 1979. In Min, Engjun Joo, Jinsook Han, Ju Kwak Korean Film History, Resistance and Democratic Imagination Praeger, 2003., pp. 94. Schnherr, Johannes A Permanent State of War A Short Story of North Korean Cinema in Edwards, Matthew (ed.) Film Out Bounds Essays and Interviews in Non-Mainstream Cinema Worldwide McFarland Company, 2007., pp. 165. Keumsil, Kim Yoon Williams, Bruce Two Lenses on the Korean Ethos Key Cultural Concepts and Their Appearance in Cinema McFarland Company 2015., pp. 101. His productivity is shown by the numbers of his movies per year. He made five films in 1959, three in 1960, four in 1961, five in 1963, five-five in 1967-1968, and seven in 1969. Fischer, Paul A Kim Jong Il Production Kidnap, Torture, MurderMaking Movies North Korean-style Penguin Books 2015., pp. 22. Chung, Steven Split Screen Korea-Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema University of Minnesota Press, London, 2014., pp.103. Lee, Hyangjin Contemporary Korean cinema Identity, culture and politics Manchester University Press 2000., pp. 81 The resurrection of the studio emerged in North Korea in the early 1980s. Interestingly, Shin and Choi found out to set a studio also in Budapest, Hungary in order to get more accession to European locations Broinowski, Anna Aim High in Creation A One-of-a-Kind Journey inside North Koreas Propaganda Machine Arcade Publishing 2016., pp. 81. Chung, Steven Split Screen Korea-Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema University of Minnesota Press, London, 2014., pp.104. Chung, Steven Split Screen Korea-Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema University of Minnesota Press, London, 2014., pp.104. Ibid, 106. Ibid, 106 Chung, Steven Sin Sang-ok and Postwar Korean Mass Culture, (Ph.D. thesis, UC Irvine, 2008.), pp. 125. Lankov, Andrei North of the DMZ Essays on Daily Life in North Korea McFarland and Company 2007., pp. 121. Youngblood, Denise J. Movies for the Masses Popular Cinema and Soviet Society in the 1920s Cambridge University Press 1992., pp. 172. Martin, Bradley K. Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader North Korea and the Kim Dynasty St. Martins Griffin, 2006., pp. 333. Ibid. Ibid. 334. Ibid. Hassig, Ralph Oh, Kongdan The Hidden People of North Korea Rowman Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2009, pp. 30. Schnherr, Johannes A Permanent State of War A Short Story of North Korean Cinema in Edwards, Matthew (ed.) Film Out Bounds Essays and Interviews in Non-Mainstream Cinema Worldwide McFarland Company, 2007., pp. 166. Martin, Bradley K. Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader North Korea and the Kim Dynasty St. Martins Griffin, 2006., pp. 331. Fischer, Paul A Kim Jong Il Production Kidnap, Torture, MurderMaking Movies North Korean-style Penguin Books 2015., pp. 239. Boynton, Robert S. The Invitation Only-Zone The Extraordinary Story of North Koreas Abduction Project, Atlantic Books 2016., pp. 68. Fischer, Paul Kim Jong-il and the great movie-star kidnap published on 21 February 2015 HYPERLINK https//www.theguardian.com/books/2015/feb/21/kim-jong-il-movie-star-kidnap-plot-north-south-korea-godzillahttps//www.theguardian.com/books/2015/feb/21/kim-jong-il-movie-star-kidnap-plot-north-south-korea-godzilla Accessed on 15 June 2017. Fischer, Paul A Kim Jong Il Production Kidnap, Torture, MurderMaking Movies North Korean-style Penguin Books 2015., pp. 239. Petrov, Leonid Filmmaking on the Edge Shin Sang-Ok and Choi Eun-Hee in North Korea (19781986) published in Royer, Michelle – Bandhauer, Andrea Stars in World Cinema I.B.Tauris Books, pp.143-155. The original idea on reviving Shin Films came up in 1983 in Pyongyang. Shins private studio joined to the two other studios, Choson (Korea) Art Film Studio that produced feature films and 2.28 Film Studio that produced military movies. This was the first and until now- the last private film company in the DPRK. In Kim, Suk-young Illusive Utopia University of Michigan Press, 2010., pp. 39. Schnherr, Johannes North Korean Cinema A History McFarland Co Inc 2012., pp. 61. Jackson, Andrew David DPRK Film, Order No. 27. and the Acousmatic Voice in Jackson, Andrew David Balmain, Colette Korean Screen Cultures-Interrogating Cinema, TV, Music and Online Games Peter Lang AG 2016., pp. 164. Kim, Suk-young Illusive Utopia University of Michigan Press, 2010., pp. 38-40. Chung, Steven Split Screen Korea-Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema University of Minnesota Press, London, 2014., pp. 43. Min, Engjun Joo, Jinsook Han, Ju Kwak Korean Film History, Resistance and Democratic Imagination Praeger, 2003., pp.29. Min, Engjun Joo, Jinsook Han, Ju Kwak Korean Film History, Resistance and Democratic Imagination Praeger, 2003., pp.33. Kim, Suk-young Illusive Utopia University of Michigan Press, 2010., pp.31. Kim, Suk-young Illusive Utopia University of Michigan Press, 2010., pp. 29. The unofficial phrase for the first New Wave of North Korean Cinema started with the rise of Kim Jong Il by the late 1960s, who defined new cinematic direction, adjusting Juche-art in films, representing Immortal Classics of revolutionary operas. The words first (South) Korean Wave have been used by Heonik Kwon and Byung-ho Chung, referring to the high popularity of South Korean romantic and family dramas in the Southeast-, and Northeast Asian region. In Kwon, Heonik Chung, Byung-ho North Korea Beyond Charismatic Politics Rowman Litllefield Publishers Inc. 2012., pp. 53. The movie has been analyzed in DPRK Film, Order No. 27. and the Acousmatic Voice by Jackson, Andrew David Balmain, Colette Korean Screen Cultures-Interrogating Cinema, TV, Music and Online Games Peter Lang AG 2016., 161- 176. The popular and the longest historical drama series of NK cinematic history is a praise film for Kim Jong Ils 50th birthday, 16 February 1991, thus, the first two episodes were broadcasted on this day. Although the movie was released between 1987 and 1989 in five episodes, the first three episodes were in produced by Shin Films and Shin himself contributed a lot in the first episodes of Rim Kkok Jong. Only a few is aware that Hong Kil Dong was also started by Shin Sang-ok under his direction but as he left the country by the release of the movie, his name was removed from the project. According to Steven Chung, it was the most memorable North Korean film due a survey among defectors, while other Shin films have been also ranked at high positions, like Love, Love, My Love was ranked at the twelfth position. In Chung, Steven Split Screen Shin Sang-ok in North Korea in Ryang, Sonia (ed.) North Korea Toward a Better Understanding Lexington Books, 2009, pp. 92. and in Chung, Steven Split Screen Korea-Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema University of Minnesota Press, London, 2014., pp. 179, Chung, Steven Split Screen Korea-Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema University of Minnesota Press, London, 2014., pp. 59 Ibid, 85. Ibid, 102. North Koreas International Movie Co-Productions 1985-2012 by Schnherr, Johannes. Paper presented at Years of Radical Change (2) SOAS Conference on Korean Screen Culture, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, 2013. (unpublished paper) Bartas, Magnus Ekman, Fredrik All Monsters Must Die-An Excursion to North Korea House of Anansi Press Int., 2015., pp. 185. Broinowski, Anna Aim High in Creation A One-of-a-Kind Journey inside North Koreas Propaganda Machine Arcade Publishing 2016., pp. 79. Gabroussenko, Tatiana Soldiers on the Cultural Front University of Hawaii Press, 2010., pp. 14. Note that some references claim that the novel was written in 1925. Chung, Steven Split Screen Shin Sang-ok in North Korea in Ryang, Sonia (ed.) North Korea Toward a Better Understanding Lexington Books, 2009, pp. 96. Lee, Hyangjin Contemporary Korean cinema Identity, culture and politics Manchester University Press 2000., pp. 88. Hakdos first words when he glances Chunhyang Come here, closer I like your shine manners () no matter which angle I look at you, you are just perfect. You are beautiful inside and outside. But youth is like an ephemeral flower. When you wither, no butterfly will visit you. So adorn yourself and serve my need. Although there were stories about illegal ticket sales that Shins movies generated, according to some personal defector interviewed confirmed serious fights and one defector even witnessed a death case during waiting in the queue. Baek, Jieun North Koreas Hidden Revolution How the Information Underground Is Transforming a Closed Society Yale University Press, 2016., pp. 179. Lee, Hyangjin Contemporary Korean cinema Identity, culture and politics Manchester University Press 2000., pp. 88. Jackson, Andrew David DPRK Film, Order No. 27. and the Acousmatic Voice in Jackson, Andrew David Balmain, Colette Korean Screen Cultures-Interrogating Cinema, TV, Music and Online Games Peter Lang AG 2016., pp. 165. According to Choson Ilbo (2002) in Edwards, Matthew Film out Bounds – Essays and Interviews on Non-Mainstream Cinema Worldwide McFarland, 2007., pp. 174. Chung, Steven Sin Sang-ok and Postwar Korean Mass Culture, (Ph.D. thesis, UC Irvine, 2008.), pp. 149-150. Ibid, 150. Note that former North Korean movies included bombing and explosion scenes, for instance Wolmido (1982), but the previous tendency for use them mainly in war movies at passive battle fields. Explosion from a moving object, for instance train, and mixing it with aesthetics of action has hardly utilized before. The movie has been analyzed by Keumsil, Kim Yoon Williams, Bruce Two Lenses on the Korean Ethos Key Cultural Concepts and Their Appearance in Cinema McFarland Company 2015., pp. 203-207. Broinowski, Anna Aim High in Creation A One-of-a-Kind Journey inside North Koreas Propaganda Machine Arcade Publishing 2016., pp.148. The movie has been analyzed by Keumsil Kim Yoon and Bruce Williams in their book Two Lenses on the Korean Ethos Key Cultural Concepts and Their Appearance in Cinema pp. 207-213. Broinowski, Anna Aim High in Creation A One-of-a-Kind Journey inside North Koreas Propaganda Machine Arcade Publishing 2016., pp. 55. Ibid., 56. Fischer, Paul A Kim Jong Il Production Kidnap, Torture, MurderMaking Movies North Korean-style Penguin Books 2015., pp. 275. Demick, Barbara Nothing to Envy Spiegel Grau 2010., pp. 15. Most of the defectors mentioned Pulgasari, Salt and Love, Love, My Love as the most memorable Shin-movies during the personal interviews. Chung, Steven Split Screen Shin Sang-ok in North Korea in Ryang, Sonia (ed.) North Korea Toward a Better Understanding Lexington Books, 2009, pp. 100. Lim, Soon Hee The Food Crisis and the Changing Roles and Attitudes of North Korean Women, Studies Series 05-02, Korea Institute for National Unification, 2005., pp.47. Demick, Barbara Nothing to Envy Spiegel Grau 2010., pp.16. Frank, Rdiger The 7th Party Congress in North Korea An Analysis of Kim Jong Uns Report published in The Asia-Pacific Journal Volume 14., Issue 14., Number 8. (Jul 2016). pp.7. Lee, Woo young Seo, Jungmin Cultural Pollution from the South in Park, Kyung-ae Snyder, Scott (eds.) North Korea in Transition Politics, Economy, and Society Rowman LittleField Publishers, Inc. 2013., pp. 206. The soldier who defected in November 2017 has also told that the main motivation was a South Korean girl band. Lee, Woo young Seo, Jungmin Cultural Pollution from the South in Park, Kyung-ae Snyder, Scott (eds.) North Korea in Transition Politics, Economy, and Society Rowman LittleField Publishers, Inc. 2013., pp. 195. When power is on, people do not watch television anymore. In Schnherr, Johannes North Korean Cinema A History McFarland Co Inc 2012., pp. 195. Chung, Steven Split Screen Shin Sang-ok in North Korea in Ryang, Sonia (ed.) North Korea Toward a Better Understanding Lexington Books, 2009., pp. 85. Ibid. 86. Fischer, Paul A Kim Jong Il Production Kidnap, Torture, MurderMaking Movies North Korean-style Penguin Books 2015., pp. 276. Schnherr, Johannes North Korean Cinema A History McFarland Co Inc 2012., pp. 192. Fischer, Paul A Kim Jong Il Production Kidnap, Torture, MurderMaking Movies North Korean-style Penguin Books 2015., pp. 276. Schnherr, Johannes North Korean Cinema A History McFarland Co Inc 2012., pp. 192. Chung, Steven Split Screen Shin Sang-ok in North Korea in Ryang, Sonia (ed.) North Korea Toward a Better Understanding Lexington Books, 2009., pp. 105. Edwards, Matthew Film out Bounds Essays and Interviews on Non-Mainstream Cinema Worldwide McFarland, 2007., pp. 181. Chung, Steven Split Screen Shin Sang-ok in North Korea in Ryang, Sonia (ed.) North Korea Toward a Better Understanding Lexington Books, 2009., pp. 105. Chung, Steven Split Screen Shin Sang-ok in North Korea in Ryang, Sonia (ed.) North Korea Toward a Better Understanding Lexington Books, 2009., pp. 92. and Chung, Steven Split Screen Korea-Shin Sang-ok and Postwar Cinema University of Minnesota Press, London, 2014., pp. 179. PAGE MERGEFORMAT 189 1 9PNG 6GaOa93x.wWx73-Eo(jFxzr x6FyYx6X16_GyyjMeQrkv xPlm OovC4UkfZr M(vU
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